Download 11th AusIMM Underground Operators' Conference 2011 PDF

Title11th AusIMM Underground Operators' Conference 2011
File Size28.8 MB
Total Pages291
Table of Contents
                            Front Matter
Table of Contents
Section 1. Keynote Address
1. A Carpenter's Journey through Forty Years of Underground Mining, Leaders and Leading
	1.1 Introduction
	1.2 Up the Mine
	1.3 19 Level ZC
	1.4 Getting into Fifty-One Party and Trackless Mining
	1.5 Leaders
	1.6 Time to Move
	1.7 Bougainville
	1.8 Back Home
	1.9 Time to Move, Again!
	1.10 Currawang and Cowely Hills Mines
	1.11 Kanowna Belle
	1.12 Northparkes
	1.13 E48 Block Cave
	1.14 Copper Projects
	1.15 Coal Mining
	1.16 Reflections
Section 2. Application and Evolution of Mining Methods
2. The Use of the Main Ramp as a Mine Exhaust at the Kencana Mine, Indonesia
	2.1 Introduction
	2.2 Potential Solutions to the Problem
		2.2.1 Reasons for Reversing the Primary Ventilation System
		2.2.2 Other Mines That Use the Surface Ramp as an Exhaust
		2.2.3 Methods of Operating the System
		2.2.4 Potential Problems in Reversing the Mine Ventilation
		2.2.5 Transitional Problems in Reversing the Mine Ventilation
	2.3 Case Study at Kencana Mine - Outcasting the Main Portal and Operating the Main Ramp as an Exhaust
		2.3.1 Implementation Issues
	2.4 Summary, Results and Conclusions
3. Strip and Line versus Blind Sink Shaft Sinking - The Ernest Henry Decision
	3.1 Introduction
	3.2 Outline of Shaft Sinking Methods
		3.2.1 Raise Bore, Strip and Line Raise Boring Shaft Collar Foundations Presinking Headframe Construction Strip and Line Shaft Fit Out and Commissioning
		3.2.2 Blind Sink Full Face Wedge Cut Benching Full Face Burn Cuts
		3.2.3 Large Diameter Raise Boring
	3.3 Evaluation of Methods
		3.3.1 Sinking Winders
		3.3.2 Headframe
		3.3.3 The Sinking Process Drilling Cycle Charging, Blasting and Re-Entry Making Safe and Mucking Shaft Lining Cover Drilling
		3.3.4 Sinking Equipment Maintenance
		3.3.5 Schedule Pumping Critical Path Decline Critical Path
		3.3.6 Cost
	3.4 The Ernest Henry Mine Decision
	3.5 Conclusions
4. Development of the Presink System for Raise Boring at Xstrata Copper's Mount Isa Copper Operations
	4.1 Introduction
	4.2 Development of the Presink System for Raise Boring at Xstrata Copper's Mount Isa Copper Operations
		4.2.1 Standard Industry Practice
		4.2.2 Mount Isa Copper Operations Presink System
	4.3 Conclusion
5. Ernest Henry Underground Mine - Access and Support Infrastructure Design
	5.1 Introduction
		5.1.1 Mine Method Selection and Production Rate
	5.2 General Mine Design
		5.2.1 Mine Access
		5.2.2 Production Operations
		5.2.3 Ventilation
		5.2.4 Workshop
	5.3 Ore Handling
		5.3.1 Trucking Phase
		5.3.2 Shaft Hoisting Phase Orepasses Transfer Levels Crushing and Conveying Hoisting
	5.4 Dewatering
		5.4.1 Pumping Systems Surface Storm Water Underground Storm Water Duty Dewatering Active Ground Water
		5.4.2 Dewatering Development and Sumpage Level Drainage Emergency Water Storage
	5.5 Conclusions
6. Unique Coal Mine Drift Construction Method
	6.1 Introduction
	6.2 Drift Construction Equipment System
		6.2.1 Roadheader Modifications
		6.2.2 Shotcrete Boom Details
		6.2.3 Roofbolting Boom Details
		6.2.4 Survey Guidance System
		6.2.5 Excavated Material Handling System
		6.2.6 Sliding Floor and Ventilation System
		6.2.7 Precast Floor System
	6.3 Project Construction Activity Scheduling
		6.3.1 Fibrecrete and Roof Bolt Installation in Parallel with Sliding Floor Nib and Precast Panel Blinding Installation
		6.3.2 Vent Duct Installation in Parallel with Roof Bolting
		6.3.3 Conveyor Boot End Relocation and Sliding Floor Advance in Parallel with Roof Bolting
		6.3.4 Precast Invert Installation in Parallel with Excavation
	6.4 Conclusions
7. The Development of 'Radial-in-Reef' Stoping at the Tasmania Gold Mine, Beaconsfield, Tasmania
	7.1 Introduction
	7.2 Geology and Setting
	7.3 Mining Methods
		7.3.1 Previous Methods
	7.4 Radial-in-Reef Stoping
		7.4.1 Radial-in-Reef - Overview
		7.4.2 Radial-in-Reef - Seismic Hazard Management
		7.4.3 Radial-in-Reef - Development and Layout Detail
		7.4.4 Radial-in-Reef - Drill and Blast Overview
		7.4.5 Radial-in-Reef - Extraction
		7.4.6 Radial-in-Reef - Surveying
		7.4.7 Radial-in-Reef - Backfilling
		7.4.8 Radial-in-Reef - Stope Performance
		7.4.9 Radial-in-Reef - Scheduling and Global Issues
	7.5 Discussion and Conclusions
8. Mining Reconciliation in Long Hole Open Stopes at George Fisher Mine
	8.1 Introduction
	8.2 Problem Identification and Analysis
	8.3 Changing Operational Practices
		8.3.1 Drill Hole Deviation
		8.3.2 Equipment Defects
		8.3.3 Wrong Emulsion Rig Set-up
		8.3.4 Misconception about Blowing Out Holes for Emulsion
		8.3.5 Modification of Shots by Ring Firers
		8.3.6 Not Closing the Feedback Loop to Design Engineers
	8.4 Investigation into Toe Firings
		8.4.1 Non-Recovery of Toes
		8.4.2 Identified That Problem Starts at Cut-off Slot
		8.4.3 Cross-Cut
		8.4.4 Taking Trough Undercuts
		8.4.5 Shoulder Firings
		8.4.6 Easer Ring
		8.4.7 Three Holes Both Sides
		8.4.8 Onion Peeling
		8.4.9 Two Holes Both Sides with Onion Peeling
		8.4.10 Timing
	8.5 Results
	8.6 Conclusions
	8.7 Recommendations
		8.7.1 Equipment Maintenance and Application
		8.7.2 Ensure Drilling Collaring is Correct
		8.7.3 Ensure Rings are Drilled at an Angle Higher Than Fifty-Five Degrees
		8.7.4 Proper Stope Preparation
		8.7.5 Re-Drill Where Deviation is Too Much
		8.7.6 Follow Engineer's Blast Designs
		8.7.7 Follow Sequence of Designed Shots without Modifications
		8.7.8 Timing
		8.7.9 Adhere to Mucking Instructions
9. Resue Mining with eDev^TM Electronic Detonators at Stawell Gold Mines
	9.1 Introduction
	9.2 Geology
	9.3 Mining Technique
		9.3.1 Other Alternatives Considered
		9.3.2 Traditional Resue Mining
		9.3.3 Technical Solutions
		9.3.4 System Overview Results Identified Points of Concern Critical for Success Identified Improvements to Customer Needs Specification Demonstrated Benefits
	9.4 Conclusions
10. Construction of the Seven Thousand Tonne per Day - Big Gossan Production Shaft
	10.1 Introduction
	10.2 Engineering and Shaft Design
	10.3 Shaft Excavation Methodology
	10.4 Shaft Sinking Plant
	10.5 Shaft Excavation
	10.6 Shaft Equipping
	10.7 Shaft Commissioning
	10.8 Challenges and Resolutions
	10.9 Project Safety
	10.10 Summary
	10.11 Conclusions
11. Trident Underground Gold Mine - The First Three Years
	11.1 Introduction
	11.2 Discovery History
	11.3 Geology and Resource
	11.4 Mine Development and Decline Design
	11.5 Production Stoping
		11.5.1 Western Zone Open Stopes
		11.5.2 Athena Stoping
		11.5.3 Apollo Stoping
	11.6 Backfill System
	11.7 Mining Contract
	11.8 Technical Personnel
	11.9 Conclusion
12. Developing the Ridgeway Deeps Project with an Operations Attitude
	12.1 Introduction
	12.2 Operational and Project Synergies
		12.2.1 Advantages
		12.2.2 Disadvantages
	12.3 Operating Restructuring
	12.4 Training Strategy
	12.5 Conclusions
13. Use of a Crane Mounted Auger for Presink Construction at Fosterville Gold Mine
	13.1 Introduction
	13.2 Harrier Vent Shaft
		13.2.1 Location
		13.2.2 Community Impact
		13.2.3 Preliminary Work
		13.2.4 Point Load Testing
		13.2.5 Proposed Methods
	13.3 Methodology
		13.3.1 Piling Contractor Method Overview Mobilisation and Site Setup Shaft Excavation
		13.3.2 Shaft Support History and Capabilities Rig Setup and Spraying
	13.4 Results and Performance
		13.4.1 Safety and Community
		13.4.2 Timing
		13.4.3 Costs
		13.4.4 Quality Control
	13.5 Lessons Learnt and Future Applications
	13.6 Conclusions
14. Mine Shafts - Planning, Optimising and Constructing
	14.1 Introduction
	14.2 The Owner's View - Why Choose a Shaft and How to Maximise its Value
		14.2.1 The Changing Way in which We Work - Implications for Shaft Sinking
		14.2.2 What is a Shaft?
		14.2.3 Why Sink a Shaft?
	14.3 Shaft Constructability
		14.3.1 Recent Shaft Construction in Australia
		14.3.2 Shaft Sinking Methods Blind Sinking Strip and Line
		14.3.3 Components of Shaft Sink Preliminary Design, Tender and Schedule Engineering Design and Drafting Risk Assessment and Procurement Presink Mobilisation and Establishment Planning and Mobilisation Timeline Shaft Sinking Off-Shaft Excavation Shaft Equipping Changeover to Permanent Configuration Commissioning
		14.3.4 Shaft Constructability Headframe Selection Winder and Kibble Selection Drill and Blast Equipment Mucking Equipment Sinking Stage
	14.4 When to Consider a Shaft?
		14.4.1 When is a Shaft the Preferred Option?
		14.4.2 Shaft Constructability Impacting on Size and Cost
		14.4.3 Shaft Operability Necessitates a High Standard of Engineering
	14.5 Value Optimisation and Flexibility
		14.5.1 Define Functional Support Requirements for the Mine
		14.5.2 Identify which Functions Can Efficiently Be Incorporated into the Shaft Design
		14.5.3 Ensure Critical Sundry Services are Incorporated in the Design Process
		14.5.4 Utilise the Asset
	14.6 Operating Flexibility
		14.6.1 Define an Operating Window for Each Major Function
		14.6.2 Understand the Step Changes in Capital and Operating Performance
	14.7 Six Steps to an Optimum Shaft
	14.8 Learnings
15. Fast, Safe and Fully Mechanised Installation of High-Tensile Chain-Link Mesh for Underground Support
	15.1 Introduction
	15.2 Roll Mesh Handler
	15.3 High-Tensile Chain-Link Mesh as a Surface Support in Rock Burst Prone Ground Conditions
		15.3.1 TECCO® G80/4
		15.3.2 DELTAX® G80/2
		15.3.3 Corrosion Protection
		15.3.4 Width of Mesh Adaptable to Advance Length Maximum Five Metres or Lifting Limit of the Jumbo
		15.3.5 High-Tensile Chain Link Mesh Does Not Unravel
		15.3.6 Blast Resistance of the TECCO®/DELTAX®
		15.3.7 Spike Plates Used
		15.3.8 Examples of Underground Applications
	15.4 Golden Grove Trial
		15.4.1 A Need for Yielding Support
		15.4.2 Trial Sites
		15.4.3 Time and Motion Study
		15.4.4 General Experience
	15.5 Costs Comparison Welded Mesh, High-Tensile Chain Link Mesh and Shotcrete
		15.5.1 Installation Time Difference between Systems
		15.5.2 Cost Bases
		15.5.3 Conclusions: Advantages and Disadvantages TECCO 4 mm versus Shotcrete DELTAX 3 mm versus Weld Mesh
	15.6 Conclusions
		15.6.1 The Bottom Line
16. Implementing and Improving the Mine Plan at the Mt Wright Project
	16.1 Introduction
	16.2 Stage 1 - Feasibility Sublevel Open Stoping
		16.2.1 Mining Sequence and Filling Backfilling Stope Stability
	16.3 Stage 2 - Sublevel Open Stoping Version 2
		16.3.1 Contained Moisture
		16.3.2 Stress Orientation
		16.3.3 Sublevel Open Stoping Version 2 Layout Smaller Open Stopes
		16.3.4 Geology and Resource Drilling Identifying Gold through Visual Inspections Locating and Reconciling the Gold
	16.4 Stage 3 - Bench Stopes
		16.4.1 Layout and Scheduling Stress and Sequencing Pillar Locations to Eliminate Cemented Fill Cost and Recovery
	16.5 Stage 4 - Sublevel Shrinkage with Continuous Fill
		16.5.1 The Sublevel Shrinkage Concept Sequencing and Scheduling Possible Threats Opportunities and Advantages
	16.6 Conclusions
17. Development of the Ernest Henry Underground Mine - The Challenges and the Solutions
	17.1 Introduction
	17.2 External Factors
		17.2.1 Mine Planning The Study Process Decline Design
		17.2.2 Delay in Investment Decision
		17.2.3 Change in Investment Decision
		17.2.4 Resource Super Profits Tax Suspension
	17.3 Underground Development Progress
		17.3.1 Development of the Portal Area November 2007 to February 2008
		17.3.2 Stage 1 Development Independent Firing March 2008 Development Rates
		17.3.3 Ventilation Development Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3
	17.4 Management of Water Events
		17.4.1 Ungrouted Diamond Drill Holes and Rain Events
		17.4.2 Pit Water Level - Cessation of Pit Pumping
		17.4.3 Ground Water - Grout Injection
		17.4.4 Risk Management - Water Inflows to the Mine
	17.5 Other Influences on the Mine
		17.5.1 Damage to the Underground Mine by Pit Blast Vibrations
		17.5.2 Interactions between the Underground and Open Pit Workforces Introduction of Underground Personnel to the Pit Environment Alignment of Pit Blasts
	17.6 Conclusions
18. Starting-up the Ernest Henry Underground Mine - Thermal and Occupational Hygiene Challenges
	18.1 Introduction
	18.2 Design Criteria
		18.2.1 Queensland Statutory Requirements
		18.2.2 Exposure Limits General Contaminants Diesel Particulate Matter Ventilation Rates
		18.2.3 Working in Heat
		18.2.4 Radiation Exposure
	18.3 Primary Airflow Requirements
		18.3.1 Capital Development
		18.3.2 Production Levels
		18.3.3 Composite Airflow Demand
		18.3.4 Main Fan Selection
		18.3.5 Secondary Ventilation Layout
	18.4 Ventilation Network Modelling
		18.4.1 Circuit Optimisation
		18.4.2 Refrigeration
	18.5 Network Design
		18.5.1 Network Summary
		18.5.2 Primary Ventilation Circuit Development Initial Development Primary Development at the Halfway Mark Primary Development almost Completed and Hoisting Shaft about to be Commissioned
	18.6 Conclusion
19. Perimeter Control Utilising Electronic Detonators at Mount Wright Mine
	19.1 Introduction
	19.2 System Overview
		19.2.1 Methodology
		19.2.2 Equipment VRMesh^TM Shotplus T^TM Callidus^TM Laser Scanner
		19.2.3 Survey of the 'As-Drilled' Perimeter Blast Holes
	19.3 Data Collection and Analysis
		19.3.1 Laser Scanning of the 'As-Blasted' Void
		19.3.2 Measurement of Cast Rates
		19.3.3 Measurement of Advance
		19.3.4 Analysis of Solids
		19.3.5 Timing Designs for Blasting Long Period Delay Design Used in Control Cuts 0 - 2 e-Dev^TM Design Used in Cut 3 e-Dev^TM Design Used in Cuts 4 - 7
	19.4 Results
	19.5 Conclusions
20. Mining at the Redross and Mariners Nickel Mines
	20.1 Introduction
	20.2 Mobile Equipment Fleets
	20.3 Mining at Redross
		20.3.1 The Redross Orebody
		20.3.2 Mining Methods
		20.3.3 Cemented Aggregate and Cemented Rock Fill Pillars
		20.3.4 Ore Development Using Split Firing
		20.3.5 Redross Hand-Held Stoping Method
	20.4 Mining at Mariners
		20.4.1 The Mariners Orebody
		20.4.2 Mariners Mine Dewatering System
		20.4.3 Mining the N07 Orebody
		20.4.4 Mining the N08 Orebody
		20.4.5 Mining the N09 Orebody
	20.5 Mining Database
Section 3. Geomechanics for General Practice
21. Simulation Aided Engineering - Integration of Monitoring, Modelling and Planning
	21.1 Introduction
	21.2 What is Simulation Aided Engineering?
		21.2.1 Simulation Aided Engineering and Product Life Cycle Management
	21.3 Simulation Aided Engineering in the Life Cycle of a Mine
		21.3.1 Sufficiency Requirements for Simulation Aided Engineering Tools
		21.3.2 Information Sharing - Collaborative, Three-Dimensional Workspaces
	21.4 Benefits of Simulation Aided Engineering for Mining
	21.5 Conclusions
22. Quality Control Aspects of Shotcrete in Mining - The Round Determinate Panel Test
	22.1 Introduction
	22.2 Material Properties
	22.3 Test Rig
	22.4 Conclusions and Recommendations
23. Case Study - Underhand Cut and Fill Stoping Using Cemented Tailings Paste Fill at the Lanfranchi Nickel Mine
	23.1 Introduction
	23.2 Geology
	23.3 Geotechnical
	23.4 Mine Design
		23.4.1 Sequence and Method Optimisation Long Hole Stoping Increased Ore Drive Height
		23.4.2 Ground Support
	23.5 Paste Fill System
		23.5.1 Paste Plant
		23.5.2 Paste Delivery Line Reticulation
		23.5.3 Paste Fill Materials
		23.5.4 Paste Fill Design Strength Requirements and Initial Test Work
		23.5.5 Paste Barricade Design
	23.6 Paste Fill Safety
		23.6.1 Apprehension towards Mining Underneath Paste
		23.6.2 Containment Zones and the Use of Cameras
		23.6.3 Paste Filled Stopes Database
	23.7 Mining Results
		23.7.1 Geological Control of Primary Ore Drive Direction
		23.7.2 Over-Break/Under-Break
	23.8 Paste Filling Results
		23.8.1 Tight Filling of Ore Drives
		23.8.2 Paste Curing Time Frames
		23.8.3 Paste Beams
		23.8.4 Intersections and Spans Underneath Paste
		23.8.5 Mining on Top of Paste
		23.8.6 Flowability of Paste in an Ore Drive
	23.9 Interesting Concepts and the Benefit of Experience
		23.9.1 Sequencing
		23.9.2 Mid-Strike Access Approach versus End Access
		23.9.3 Hitting the Footwall Early
		23.9.4 Inflatable Paste Walls
		23.9.5 Use of Cold Joints
		23.9.6 Long Hole Stoping
	23.10 Conclusion
24. Ground Support Design and Application for Developing in Paste Fill at BHP Billiton - Cannington Mine
	24.1 Introduction
	24.2 Properties of Paste Fill Mass and Fibrecrete
	24.3 Phase2 Modelling and Results
		24.3.1 Model Set Up
		24.3.2 Modelling Results
	24.4 Modified Mining-Support Regimes and Performance
		24.4.1 Modified Mining-Support Process
		24.4.2 Performance of the Modified Support Standards
	24.5 Conclusions and Future Work
25. Bored Reinforced Piles for Raise Bore Support - Four Case Studies and Guidelines Developed from Lessons Learnt
	25.1 Introduction
	25.2 The Bored Piles Strategy
		25.2.1 Trident Gold Mine
		25.2.2 Wattle Dam Gold Mine
		25.2.3 Athena Gold Mine
	25.3 Pile Design Guidelines
		25.3.1 Bored Pile Number, Diameter and Positioning Pile Number and Spacing Diameter Pile Verticality
		25.3.2 Pile Reinforcement Options
		25.3.3 Pregrouting
		25.3.4 Shaft Cap
		25.3.5 Stability of Piles after Reaming
	25.4 Pile Construction Guidelines
		25.4.1 Boring Method
		25.4.2 Hole Position and Verticality Check
		25.4.3 Grout Pour Method
		25.4.4 Grout Volume and Composition
		25.4.5 Cable Reinforcement Placement
		25.4.6 Bored Pile Data Collection
	25.5 Raiseboring Guidelines
	25.6 Fibrecreting Guidelines
	25.7 Conclusion
26. Fine-Tuning Raise Bore Stability Assessments and Risk
	26.1 Introduction
	26.2 Stress-Induced Fracturing
	26.3 Stress Reduction Factor
	26.4 Raise Diameter and Lower-Bound Qr versus Performance
	26.5 Parameter Jw/SRF
	26.6 Parameter Rock Quality Designation/Jn
	26.7 Parameter Jr/Ja
	26.8 Error in the Evaluation of Qr
	26.9 Time-Dependent Raise Behaviour
	26.10 Examples of Raise Performance
		26.10.1 Case Numbers Nine and Ten - Porphyry-Copper-Gold Deposit
		26.10.2 Case Numbers 11 and 14 - Base Metal Deposit in a High Grade Metamorphic Sequence
		26.10.3 Case Number 39 - Carbonate-Hosted Base Metal Deposit
		26.10.4 Case Number 40 - Hanging Wall Ultramafic at a Western Australian Nickel Mine
		26.10.5 Case Number 23 - Saprolite Zone at a Western Australian Nickel Mine
	26.11 Stand-up Times Determined by Bieniawski's Rock Mass Rating
	26.12 Conclusions
27. What Have We Learnt about Managing Rock Burst Risks?
	27.1 Introduction
	27.2 Managing Rock Burst Risk
	27.3 Reducing Seismic Risk Using Ground Support Systems
	27.4 Reducing Seismic Risk Using Exclusion Zones
	27.5 Conclusion
Section 4. Mine and Infrastructure Planning/Implementation
28. Alternative Underground Ore Transport Systems for the Jaguar Base Metal Deposit
	28.1 Introduction
	28.2 Haulage Systems and Application to the Jaguar Project
		28.2.1 Conventional Underground Truck Haulage Opening Size Required
		28.2.2 Conveyor
		28.2.3 Rigid Frame Trucks
		28.2.4 Road Trains
		28.2.5 Monorail Opening Size Loader Monorail Capital Costs Suitability for Jaguar
		28.2.6 Shaft Hoisting Overview Operating Costs Capital Costs Suitability for Jaguar
		28.2.7 Electric Trucks Capital Cost Operating Cost
		28.2.8 Summary of Comparison of Alternatives for Jaguar Haulage
	28.3 Financial Analysis
		28.3.1 Base Data
		28.3.2 Base Case - Jabiru Gas Power Generation
		28.3.3 Diesel Power Generation
		28.3.4 Cost Sensitivities
		28.3.5 Ore Load and Haulage Costs Base Case Jabiru Gas Power Generation Diesel Power Generation Major Components of Ore Haulage Cost Using Gas Power Generation
	28.4 Conclusions
29. Improved Technology - Selection of a Suitable Underground Concrete Transport Vehicle
	29.1 Introduction
	29.2 History
	29.3 Risk Assessments
		29.3.1 Tyres
		29.3.2 Brakes
		29.3.3 Transmissions
		29.3.4 Steering
		29.3.5 Chassis
	29.4 Key Findings and Considerations
	29.5 Cost Analysis
	29.6 Selection Process
	29.7 Conclusions
	29.8 Recommendations
30. A Comparison of Skip Loading Systems from an Operational, Maintenance, Safety and Capital Cost Estimate Perspective
	30.1 Introduction
	30.2 Shaft Loading Operation
		30.2.1 Loading Flask System
		30.2.2 Conveyor Loading System
		30.2.3 Winder Cycle Comparison
	30.3 Maintenance
		30.3.1 Loading Flask System
		30.3.2 Conveyor Loading System
	30.4 Safety
		30.4.1 Loading Flask System
		30.4.2 Conveyor Loading System
	30.5 Capital Cost Estimate
		30.5.1 Loading Flask System
		30.5.2 Conveyor Loading System
	30.6 Comparison
Section 5. Sustainability
31. Sustainable Minerals Education - We Care, but Do You?
	31.1 Introduction
		31.1.1 Stakeholder Support for Minerals Education Government Support? University Support? Mining Industry Support?
		31.1.2 Supply of Mining Educators
		31.1.3 Why Can't We Attract Young Bright Locals into Academia?
		31.1.4 What Type of Graduate is Required by the Industry in 2010?
		31.1.5 Innovations in Teaching and Learning
		31.1.6 International Initiatives to Ensure Future Supply of Mining Engineers Society of Mining Professors Philippines Thailand Laos Cambodia Asia-Pacific Mining Education Network
		31.1.7 The Growth of Postgraduate Education
		31.1.8 Strategies to Address the Looming Crisis
	31.2 Conclusions
32. Underground Mining and Water Management
	32.1 Introduction
	32.2 Key Water Systems Risks
		32.2.1 Trends in Underground Mining and Implications for Water Management
		32.2.2 Underground Mine Water Use and Management
		32.2.3 Stable Isotopic Technique for Estimating Groundwater Inflows to Constrain Water Use Efficiency
		32.2.4 Underground Mine Water Risks and Strategies
	32.3 Conclusions
33. How Leadership Can Create an Enduring Safety Culture
	33.1 Introduction
	33.2 Safety Culture
	33.3 Behaviours and Safety
	33.4 Improving Safe Behaviour Observations
	33.5 Leadership and Safety
	33.6 The Leader's Toolkit
	33.7 Measuring Leader's Behaviours
	33.8 Production and Safety
	33.9 Conclusions
Section 6. Technology and its Application
34. Benefits of Advanced Technology in Underground Mining
	34.1 Introduction
	34.2 Navigation Using the Total Station
	34.3 Equipment Required to Navigate Using the Integrated Total Station
	34.4 Preparations for Navigation When the Total Station is Fitted on the Tripod
	34.5 Work Operation
	34.6 In the Drill Rig's Cab
	34.7 Profile Measurement with Scanner Mounted on the Drill Rig
	34.8 Application Areas for the Tunnel Scanner
		34.8.1 Display of the Underbreak and Overbreak
		34.8.2 Reduced Need for Surveyors to Perform Simple Tasks
		34.8.3 Thickness of Shotcrete
		34.8.4 Navigation of the Drill Rig and Scanner
	34.9 Fast Result
	34.10 Equipment to be Able to Scan and Navigate with Atlas Copco Tunnel Profiler
	34.11 Preparation
	34.12 Scanning of Tunnel Profile
	34.13 Location Using Tunnel Profiler
	34.14 Measure while Drilling
	34.15 Underground Production Data Communication
	34.16 Experience from Using High Precision Tunnelling Equipment
	34.17 Newcrest, Cadia East, Australia
	34.18 Veidekke, Northen Link, Sweden
	34.19 Outokumpu, Kemi, Finland
	34.20 Östu-Stettin, Österberg Tunnel, Austria
35. Accurate Underground Wireless Ranging and Tracking
	35.1 Introduction
	35.2 Approaches to Tracking
		35.2.1 Radio Frequency Identification
		35.2.2 Angle of Arrival
		35.2.3 Received Signal Strength
		35.2.4 Time of Arrival
	35.3 WASP System
		35.3.1 Hardware
		35.3.2 Data Communications
		35.3.3 Algorithms
	35.4 WASP Range Measurement Validation
		35.4.1 Cable Test
		35.4.2 Metal Building Test
		35.4.3 Underground Mine Test
	35.5 WASP Localisation
	35.6 Conclusions
36. The Status of Implementation of Proximity Detection Systems in Underground Mines
	36.1 Introduction
	36.2 Digital Communications and Proximity Detection
		36.2.1 Digital Communication and the Convergence of Technologies
		36.2.2 Proximity Detection The Need for a Proximity Detection System The Most Important Requirement for an Effective Proximity Detection System HazardAvert® System Components HazardAvert® Installations
		36.2.3 Proximity Detection and HazardAvert Activity in Australia
	36.3 Conclusions
37. Case Study Comparison of Teleremote and Autonomous Assist Underground Loader Technology at the Kanowna Belle Mine
	37.1 Introduction
	37.2 Kanowna Belle Overview
	37.3 Background
	37.4 Data Collection and Analysis
		37.4.1 Gear Use
		37.4.2 Mode Utilisation
		37.4.3 Teleremote and Copilot Motion
		37.4.4 Productivity Productivity - Stope Direct to Orepass Productivity - Stope to Stockpile, Rehandle to Orepass
	37.5 Other Measures of Value
	37.6 Economic Assessment
	37.7 Trial Learnings
	37.8 Future Improvements
	37.9 Conclusions
Author Index

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