Download 38.Fundamentals of Soil Behaviour 3nd Edition (James K.mitchell&Kenichi Soga PDF

Title38.Fundamentals of Soil Behaviour 3nd Edition (James K.mitchell&Kenichi Soga
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Table of Contents
                            Front Matter
Preface
	References
	Descriptions of Introductory Photographs to the Chapters
Table of Contents
List of Symbols
References
Index
	Front Matter
	Preface
		References
		Descriptions of Introductory Photographs to the Chapters
	Table of Contents
	1. Introduction
		1.1 Soil Behavior in Civil and Environmental Engineering
		1.2 Scope and Organization
		1.3 Getting Started
	2. Soil Formation
		2.1 Introduction
		2.2 The Earth's Crust
		2.3 Geologic Cycle and Geological Time
		2.4 Rock and Mineral Stability
		2.5 Weathering
			2.5.1 Physical Processes of Weathering
			2.5.2 Chemical Processes of Weathering
			2.5.3 Microbiological Effects
			2.5.4 Weathering Products
			2.5.5 Effects of Climate, Topography, Parent Material, Time, and Biotic Factors
		2.6 Origin of Clay Minerals and Clay Genesis
			2.6.1 Kaolinite Minerals
			2.6.2 Smectite Minerals
			2.6.3 Illite (Hydrous Mica) and Vermiculite
			2.6.4 Chlorite Minerals
			2.6.5 Discussion
		2.7 Soil Profiles and Their Development
		2.8 Sediment Erosion, Transport, and Deposition
			2.8.1 Erosion
			2.8.2 Transportation
			2.8.3 Deposition
			2.8.4 Depositional Environment
		2.9 Postdepositional Changes in Sediments
			2.9.1 Desiccation
			2.9.2 Weathering
			2.9.3 Consolidation and Densification
			2.9.4 Unloading
			2.9.5 Authigenesis, Diagenesis, Cementation, and Recrystallization
			2.9.6 Time Effects
			2.9.7 Leaching, Ion Exchange, and Differential Solution
			2.9.8 Jointing and Fissuring of Clay Soils
			2.9.9 Biological Effects
			2.9.10 Human Effects
		2.10 Concluding Comments
		Questions and Problems
	3. Soil Mineralogy
		3.1 Importance of Soil Mineralogy in Geotechnical Engineering
		3.2 Atomic Structure
		3.3 Interatomic Bonding
			3.3.1 Primary Bonds
			3.3.2 Bonding in Soil Minerals
		3.4 Secondary Bonds
			3.4.1 The Hydrogen Bond
			3.4.2 van der Waals Bonds
		3.5 Crystals and Their Properties
			3.5.1 Crystal Formation
			3.5.2 Characteristics of Crystals
		3.6 Crystal Notation
		3.7 Factors Controlling Crystal Structures
		3.8 Silicate Crystals
		3.9 Surfaces
		3.10 Gravel, Sand, and Silt Particles
		3.11 Soil Minerals and Materials Formed by Biogenic and Geochemical Processes
		3.12 Summary of Nonclay Mineral Characteristics
		3.13 Structural Units of the Layer Silicates
			3.13.1 Silica Sheet
			3.13.2 Silica Chains
			3.13.3 Octahedral Sheet
		3.14 Synthesis Pattern and Classification of the Clay Minerals
			3.14.1 Isomorphous Substitution
		3.15 Intersheet and Interlayer Bonding in the Clay Minerals
		3.16 The 1:1 Minerals
			3.16.1 Halloysite
			3.16.2 Isomorphous Substitution and Exchange Capacity
			3.16.3 Morphology and Surface Area
		3.17 Smectite Minerals
			3.17.1 Structure
			3.17.2 Isomorphous Substitution in the Smectite Minerals
			3.17.3 Morphology and Surface Area
			3.17.4 Bentonite
		3.18 Micalike Clay Minerals
			3.18.1 Structure
			3.18.2 Isomorphous Substitution and Exchange Capacity
			3.18.3 Morphology and Surface Area
		3.19 Other Clay Minerals
			3.19.1 Chlorite Minerals
			3.19.2 Chain Structure Clay Minerals
			3.19.3 Mixed-Layer Clays
			3.19.4 Noncrystalline Clay Materials
		3.20 Summary of Clay Mineral Characteristics
		3.21 Determination of Soil Composition
			3.21.1 Introduction
			3.21.2 Methods for Compositional Analysis
			3.21.3 Accuracy of Compositional Analysis
			3.21.4 General Scheme for Compositional Analysis
		3.22 X-Ray Diffraction Analysis
			3.22.1 X-Rays and Their Generation
			3.22.2 Diffraction of X-Rays
			3.22.3 Detection of Diffracted X-Rays
			3.22.4 Analysis of X-Ray Patterns
			3.22.5 Criteria for Clay Minerals
			3.22.6 Criteria for Nonclay Minerals
			3.22.7 Quantitative Analysis by X-Ray Diffraction
		3.23 Other Methods for Compositional Analysis
			3.23.1 Thermal Analysis
			3.23.2 Optical Microscope
			3.23.3 Electron Microscope
		3.24 Quantitative Estimation of Soil Components
		3.25 Concluding Comments
		Questions and Problems
	4. Soil Composition and Engineering Properties
		4.1 Introduction
		4.2 Approaches to the Study of Composition and Property Interrelationships
		4.3 Engineering Properties of Granular Soils
			4.3.1 Particle Size and Distribution
			4.3.2 Particle Shape
			4.3.3 Particle Stiffness
			4.3.4 Particle Strength
		4.4 Dominating Influence of the Clay Phase
		4.5 Atterberg Limits
			4.5.1 Liquid Limit
			4.5.2 Plastic Limit
			4.5.3 Liquidity Index
		4.6 Activity
		4.7 Influences of Exchangeable Cations and pH
		4.8 Engineering Properties of Clay Minerals
			4.8.1 Atterberg Limits
			4.8.2 Particle Size and Shape
			4.8.3 Hydraulic Conductivity (Permeability)
			4.8.4 Shear Strength
			4.8.5 Compressibility
			4.8.6 Swelling and Shrinkage
			4.8.7 Time-Dependent Behavior
		4.9 Effects of Organic Matter
		4.10 Concluding Comments
		Questions and Problems
	5. Soil Fabric and Its Measurement
		5.1 Introduction
		5.2 Definitions of Fabrics and Fabric Elements
			5.2.1 Particle Associations in Clay Suspensions
			5.2.2 Particle Associations in Soils
			5.2.3 Fabric Scale
		5.3 Single-Grain Fabrics
			5.3.1 Direct Observation of Cohesionless Soil Fabric
			5.3.2 Packing of Equal-Sized Spheres
			5.3.3 Particle Packings in Granular Soils
		5.4 Contact Force Characterization Using Photoelasticity
		5.5 Multigrain Fabrics
		5.6 Voids and Their Distribution
		5.7 Sample Acquisition and Preparation for Fabric Analysis
			5.7.1 Sample Preparation for Fabric Analysis
			5.7.2 Preparation of Surfaces for Study
		5.8 Methods for Fabric Study
			5.8.1 Polarizing Microscope
			5.8.2 Electron Microscope
			5.8.3 Environmental SEM
			5.8.4 Image Analysis
			5.8.5 X-Ray Diffraction
			5.8.6 Transmission X-Ray and Computed Tomography Scan
		5.9 Pore Size Distribution Analysis
			5.9.1 Volumetric Pore Size Distribution Determinations
			5.9.2 Image Analysis
		5.10 Indirect Methods for Fabric Characterization
			5.10.1 Elastic Wave Propagation
			5.10.2 Dielectric Dispersion and Electrical Conductivity
			5.10.3 Thermal Conductivity
			5.10.4 Mechanical Properties
		5.11 Concluding Comment
		Questions and Problems
	6. Soil-Water-Chemical Interactions
		6.1 Introduction
		6.2 Nature of Ice and Water
		6.3 Influence of Dissolved Ions on Water
		6.4 Mechanisms for Soil-Water Interaction
			6.4.1 Hydrogen Bonding
			6.4.2 Hydration of Exchangeable Cations
			6.4.3 Attraction by Osmosis
			6.4.4 Charged Surface-Dipole Attraction
			6.4.5 Attraction by London Dispersion Forces
			6.4.6 Capillary Condensation
		6.5 Structure and Properties of Adsorbed Water
			6.5.1 Density of Adsorbed Water
			6.5.2 X-Ray Evidence of Adsorbed Water Structure
			6.5.3 Diffusion, Viscosity, and Fluid Flow Properties
			6.5.4 Dielectric and Magnetic Properties
			6.5.5 Supercooling and Freezing of Adsorbed Water
			6.5.6 Thermodynamics of Soil Water
			6.5.7 Infrared and Neutron Diffraction Data
			6.5.8 Quantification of Property Variations
			6.5.9 Concluding Comments
		6.6 Clay-Water-Electrolyte System
		6.7 Ion Distributions in Clay-Water Systems
		6.8 Elements of Double-Layer Theory
			6.8.1 Single Diffuse Double Layer
			6.8.2 Interacting Double Layers
		6.9 Influences of System Variables on the Double Layer
			6.9.1 Effects of Electrolyte Concentration
			6.9.2 Effects of Cation Valence
			6.9.3 Effects of Dielectric Constant
			6.9.4 Effect of Temperature
		6.10 Limitations of the Gouy-Chapman Diffuse Double Layer Model
			6.10.1 Ion Size and Type
			6.10.2 Ion Redistributions
			6.10.3 Clay Platelet Associations and Particle Interference
			6.10.4 Effect of pH
			6.10.5 Anion Adsorption
		6.11 Energy and Force of Repulsion
		6.12 Long-Range Attraction
		6.13 Net Energy of Interaction
		6.14 Cation Exchange - General Considerations
			6.14.1 Common Ions in Soils
			6.14.2 Sources of Exchange Capacity
			6.14.3 Exchange Capacities of the Clay Minerals
			6.14.4 Cation Replaceability
			6.14.5 Rate of Exchange
			6.14.6 Stability of Adsorbed Ion Complexes
		6.15 Theories for Ion Exchange
		6.16 Soil-Inorganic Chemical Interactions
		6.17 Clay-Organic Chemical Interactions
		6.18 Concluding Comments
		Questions and Problems
	7. Effective, Intergranular, and Total Stress
		7.1 Introduction
		7.2 Principle of Effective Stress
		7.3 Force Distributions in a Particulate System
		7.4 Interparticle Forces
			7.4.1 Interparticle Repulsive Forces
			7.4.2 Interparticle Attractive Forces
		7.5 Intergranular Pressure
		7.6 Water Pressures and Potentials
		7.7 Water Pressure Equilibrium in Soil
		7.8 Measurement of Pore Pressures in Soils
		7.9 Effective and Intergranular Pressure
		7.10 Assessment of Terzaghi's Equation
		7.11 Water-Air Interactions in Soils
		7.12 Effective Stress in Unsaturated Soils
		7.13 Concluding Comments
		Questions and Problems
	8. Soil Deposits - Their Formation, Structure, Geotechnical Properties, and Stability
		8.1 Introduction
		8.2 Structure Development
			8.2.1 Early Concepts
			8.2.2 General Considerations in Structure Development
			8.2.3 Residual Soils
			8.2.4 Alluvial Soils
			8.2.5 Aeolian Soils
			8.2.6 Glacial Deposits
			8.2.7 Remolded and Compacted Soil Fabrics
			8.2.8 Effects of Postformational Changes
		8.3 Residual Soils
			8.3.1 Tropical Soils
			8.3.2 Saprolite
			8.3.3 Decomposed Granite
			8.3.4 Colluvial Soils
			8.3.5 Pyritic Soils
		8.4 Surficial Residual Soils and Taxonomy
		8.5 Terrestrial Deposits
			8.5.1 Aeolian Deposits
			8.5.2 Glacial Deposits
			8.5.3 Alluvial Deposits
			8.5.4 Lacustrine and Paludal Deposits
		8.6 Mixed Continental and Marine Deposits
			8.6.1 Littoral Deposits
			8.6.2 Estuarine Deposits
			8.6.3 Deltaic Deposits
		8.7 Marine Deposits
			8.7.1 Neritic Deposits
			8.7.2 Bathyal Deposits
			8.7.3 Abyssal Deposits
		8.8 Chemical and Biological Deposits
		8.9 Fabric, Structure, and Property Relationships: General Considerations
		8.10 Soil Fabric and Property Anisotropy
			8.10.1 Sands and Silts
			8.10.2 Clays
		8.11 Sand Fabric and Liquefaction
		8.12 Sensitivity and Its Causes
			8.12.1 Composition of Sensitive Clays
			8.12.2 Fabric of Sensitive Clays
			8.12.3 Causes of Sensitivity
			8.12.4 Aging of Quick Clay Samples
			8.12.5 Significance of Aging in Practice
			8.12.6 Summary of Sensitivity-Causing Mechanisms
		8.13 Property Interrelationships in Sensitive Clays
			8.13.1 General Characteristics of Sensitive Clays
			8.13.2 Property, Effective Stress, and Water Content Relationships
			8.13.3 Sensitivity-Effective Stress-Liquidity Index Relationship
		8.14 Dispersive Clays
		8.15 Slaking
		8.16 Collapsing Soils and Swelling Soils
		8.17 Hard Soils and Soft Rocks
		8.18 Concluding Comments
		Questions and Problems
	9. Conduction Phenomena
		9.1 Introduction
		9.2 Flow Laws and Interrelationships
		9.3 Hydraulic Conductivity
			9.3.1 Theoretical Equations for Hydraulic Conductivity
			9.3.2 Validity of Darcy's Law
			9.3.3 Anisotropy
			9.3.4 Fabric and Hydraulic Conductivity
		9.4 Flows through Unsaturated Soils
		9.5 Thermal Conductivity
		9.6 Electrical Conductivity
			9.6.1 Nonconductive Particle Models
			9.6.2 Conductive Particle Models
			9.6.3 Alternating Current Conductivity and Dielectric Constant
		9.7 Diffusion
		9.8 Typical Ranges of Flow Parameters
		9.9 Simultaneous Flows of Water, Current, and Salts through Soil-Coupled Flows
		9.10 Quantification of Coupled Flows
			9.10.1 Direct Observational Approach
			9.10.2 General Theory for Coupled Flows
			9.10.3 Application
		9.11 Simultaneous Flows of Water, Current, and Chemicals
		9.12 Electrokinetic Phenomena
			9.12.1 Electroosmosis
			9.12.2 Streaming Potential
			9.12.3 Electrophoresis
			9.12.4 Migration or Sedimentation Potential
		9.13 Transport Coefficients and the Importance of Coupled Flows
			9.13.1 Coupling Influences on Hydraulic Flow
			9.13.2 Coupling Influences on Electrical Flow
			9.13.3 Coupling Influences on Chemical Flow
		9.14 Compatibility - Effects of Chemical Flows on Properties
			9.14.1 Chemical Compatibility and Hydraulic Conductivity
		9.15 Electroosmosis
			9.15.1 Helmholtz and Smoluchowski Theory
			9.15.2 Schmid Theory
			9.15.3 Spiegler Friction Model
			9.15.4 Ion Hydration
		9.16 Electroosmosis Efficiency
			9.16.1 Saxen's Law Prediction of Electroosmosis from Streaming Potential
			9.16.2 Energy Requirements
			9.16.3 Relationship between k_e and k_i
		9.17 Consolidation by Electroosmosis
			9.17.1 Assumptions
			9.17.2 Governing Equations
			9.17.3 Amount of Consolidation
			9.17.4 Rate of Consolidation
		9.18 Electrochemical Effects
		9.19 Electrokinetic Remediation
		9.20 Self-Potentials
			9.20.1 Generation of Self-Potentials in Soil Layers
			9.20.2 Excess Pore Pressure Generation by Self-Potentials
			9.20.3 Landslide Stabilization Using Short-Circuit Conductors
		9.21 Thermally Driven Moisture Flow
		9.22 Ground Freezing
			9.22.1 Depth of Frost Penetration
			9.22.2 Frost Heaving
			9.22.3 Thaw Consolidation and Weakening
			9.22.4 Ground Strengthening and Flow Barriers by Artificial Ground Freezing
		9.23 Concluding Comments
		Questions and Problems
	10. Volume Change Behavior
		10.1 Introduction
		10.2 General Volume Change Behavior of Soils
		10.3 Preconsolidation Pressure
		10.4 Factors Controlling Resistance to Volume Change
		10.5 Physical Interactions in Volume Change
		10.6 Fabric, Structure, and Volume Change
			10.6.1 Shrinkage
			10.6.2 Collapse
			10.6.3 Compression
			10.6.4 Swelling
		10.7 Osmotic Pressure and Water Adsorption Influences on Compression and Swelling
			10.7.1 Applicability of Osmotic Pressure Concepts
			10.7.2 Homoionic Cation Systems
			10.7.3 Mixed-Cation Systems
			10.7.4 Summary
			10.7.5 Water Adsorption Theory of Swelling
		10.8 Influences of Mineralogical Detail in Soil Expansion
			10.8.1 Crystal Lattice Configuration Effects
			10.8.2 Hydroxy Interlayering
			10.8.3 Salt Heave
			10.8.4 Impact of Pyrite
			10.8.5 Bacterially Generated Heave - Case History
			10.8.6 Sulfate-Induced Swelling of Cement- and Lime-Stabilized Soils
		10.9 Consolidation
			10.9.1 Ranges of Compressibility and Consolidation Parameters
			10.9.2 Shortcomings of Simple Theory for Predicting Volume Change and Settlements
			10.9.3 Effects of Sample Disturbance
		10.10 Secondary Compression
		10.11 In Situ Horizontal Stress (K_0)
			10.11.1 Development of Horizontal Stress
			10.11.2 Effect of Lateral Yielding on the Coefficient of Earth Pressure
			10.11.3 Anisotropy
			10.11.4 Time Dependence of Lateral Earth Pressure at Rest
		10.12 Temperature-Volume Relationships
			10.12.1 Theoretical Analysis
			10.12.2 Volume Change Behavior
			10.12.3 Pore Pressure Behavior
		10.13 Concluding Comments
		Questions and Problems
	11. Strength and Deformation Behavior
		11.1 Introduction
		11.2 General Characteristics of Strength and Deformation
			11.2.1 Strength
			11.2.2 Stress-Strain Behavior
		11.3 Fabric, Structure, and Strength
			11.3.1 Fabric Changes during Shear of Cohesionless Materials
			11.3.2 Compaction versus Overconsolidation of Sand
			11.3.3 Effect of Clay Structure on Deformations
			11.3.4 Structure, Effective Stresses, and Strength
		11.4 Friction between Solid Surfaces
			11.4.1 Basic ''Laws'' of Friction
			11.4.2 Surface Roughness
			11.4.3 Surface Adsorption
			11.4.4 Adhesion Theory of Friction
			11.4.5 Sliding Friction
		11.5 Frictional Behavior of Minerals
			11.5.1 Nonclay Minerals
			11.5.2 Clay Minerals
		11.6 Physical Interactions among Particles
			11.6.1 Strong Force Networks and Weak Clusters
			11.6.2 Buckling, Sliding, and Rolling
			11.6.3 Fabric Anisotropy
			11.6.4 Changes in Number of Contacts and Microscopic Voids
			11.6.5 Macroscopic Friction Angle versus Interparticle Friction Angle
			11.6.6 Effects of Particle Shape and Angularity
		11.7 Critical State: A Useful Reference Condition
			11.7.1 Clays
			11.7.2 Sands
		11.8 Strength Parameters for Sands
			11.8.1 Early Studies
			11.8.2 Critical State Friction Angle
			11.8.3 Peak Friction Angle
			11.8.4 Undrained Strengths
		11.9 Strength Parameters for Clays
			11.9.1 Friction Angles
			11.9.2 Failure Envelope for Overconsolidated Clays
			11.9.3 Undrained Shear Strength
		11.10 Behavior After Peak and Strain Localization
		11.11 Residual State and Residual Strength
			11.11.1 Nonclay Minerals
			11.11.2 Influence of Increasing Clay Content
			11.11.3 Clay Minerals
		11.12 Intermediate Stress Effects and Anisotropy
			11.12.1 Sands
			11.12.2 Clays
			11.12.3 Failure Envelopes
			11.12.4 Fabric Anisotropy
		11.13 Resistance to Cyclic Loading and Liquefaction
			11.13.1 Drained Behavior
			11.13.2 Undrained Behavior
			11.13.3 Residual Strength after Liquefaction
		11.14 Strength of Mixed Soils
		11.15 Cohesion
			11.15.1 Possible Sources of True Cohesion
			11.15.2 Apparent Cohesion
			11.15.3 Summary
		11.16 Fracturing of Soils
			11.16.1 Fracture under Undrained Conditions
			11.16.2 Fracture under Drained Conditions
			11.16.3 Desiccation Cracks
			11.16.4 Fracture Propagation
		11.17 Deformation Characteristics
		11.18 Linear Elastic Stiffness
		11.19 Transition from Elastic to Plastic States
			11.19.1 Sands and Gravels
			11.19.2 Clays
		11.20 Plastic Deformation
			11.20.1 Yield Envelope and Hardening
			11.20.2 Magnitude of Plastic Strains and Stress-Dilatancy
		11.21 Temperature Effects
		11.22 Concluding Comments
		Questions and Problems
	12. Time Effects on Strength and Deformation
		12.1 Introduction
		12.2 General Characteristics
		12.3 Time-Dependent Deformation-Structure Interaction
			12.3.1 Time-Dependent Process of Particle Rearrangement
			12.3.2 Particle Breakage during Creep
			12.3.3 Aging - Time-Dependent Strengthening of Soil Structure
			12.3.4 Time-Dependent Changes in Soil Fabric
			12.3.5 Time-Dependent Changes in Physicochemical Interaction of Clay and Pore Fluid
		12.4 Soil Deformation as a Rate Process
			12.4.1 Concept of Activation
			12.4.2 Activation Frequency
			12.4.3 Strain Rate Equation
			12.4.4 Soil Deformation as a Rate Process
			12.4.5 Arrhenius Equation
		12.5 Bonding, Effective Stresses, and Strength
			12.5.1 Deformation Parameters from Creep Test Data
			12.5.2 Activation Energies for Soil Creep
			12.5.3 Number of Interparticle Bonds
			12.5.4 Significance of Activation Energy and Bond Number Values
			12.5.5 Hypothesis for Bonding, Effective Stress, and Strength
		12.6 Shearing Resistance as a Rate Process
			12.6.1 Strain Rate Effects
			12.6.2 Effect of Temperature
		12.7 Creep and Stress Relaxation
			12.7.1 Effect of Composition
			12.7.2 Volume Change and Pore Pressures
			12.7.3 Effects of Temperature
			12.7.4 Effects of Test Type, Stress System, and Stress Path
			12.7.5 Interaction between Consolidation and Creep
		12.8 Rate Effects on Stress-Strain Relationships
			12.8.1 Yield and Strength Envelopes of Clays
			12.8.2 Excess Pore Pressure Generation in Normally Consolidated Clays
			12.8.3 Overconsolidated Clays
			12.8.4 Rate Effects on Sands
			12.8.5 Stiffness at Small and Intermediate Strains
			12.8.6 Rate Effects during Cyclic Loading
		12.9 Modeling of Stress-Strain-Time Behavior
			12.9.1 General Stress-Strain-Time Function
			12.9.2 Constitutive Models
		12.10 Creep Rupture
			12.10.1 Causes of Strength Loss during Creep
			12.10.2 Time to Failure
		12.11 Sand Aging Effects and Their Significance
			12.11.1 Increase in Shear Modulus with Time
			12.11.2 Time-Dependent Behavior after Ground Improvement
			12.11.3 Setup of Displacement Piles
		12.12 Mechanical Processes of Aging
		12.13 Chemical Processes of Aging
		12.14 Concluding Comments
		Questions and Problems
	List of Symbols
	References
	Index
	Front Matter
	Preface
		References
		Descriptions of Introductory Photographs to the Chapters
	Table of Contents
	List of Symbols
	References
	Index
	Front Matter
	Table of Contents
	References
	Index
	Front Matter
	Table of Contents
	List of Symbols
	References
	Index
	Front Matter
	Table of Contents
	List of Symbols
	References
	Index
	Front Matter
	Table of Contents
	List of Symbols
	References
	Index
	Front Matter
	Table of Contents
	1. Introduction
		1.1 Soil Behavior in Civil and Environmental Engineering
		1.2 Scope and Organization
		1.3 Getting Started
	List of Symbols
	References
	Index
	Front Matter
	Table of Contents
	2. Soil Formation
		2.1 Introduction
		2.2 The Earth's Crust
		2.3 Geologic Cycle and Geological Time
		2.4 Rock and Mineral Stability
		2.5 Weathering
			2.5.1 Physical Processes of Weathering
			2.5.2 Chemical Processes of Weathering
			2.5.3 Microbiological Effects
			2.5.4 Weathering Products
			2.5.5 Effects of Climate, Topography, Parent Material, Time, and Biotic Factors
		2.6 Origin of Clay Minerals and Clay Genesis
			2.6.1 Kaolinite Minerals
			2.6.2 Smectite Minerals
			2.6.3 Illite (Hydrous Mica) and Vermiculite
			2.6.4 Chlorite Minerals
			2.6.5 Discussion
		2.7 Soil Profiles and Their Development
		2.8 Sediment Erosion, Transport, and Deposition
			2.8.1 Erosion
			2.8.2 Transportation
			2.8.3 Deposition
			2.8.4 Depositional Environment
		2.9 Postdepositional Changes in Sediments
			2.9.1 Desiccation
			2.9.2 Weathering
			2.9.3 Consolidation and Densification
			2.9.4 Unloading
			2.9.5 Authigenesis, Diagenesis, Cementation, and Recrystallization
			2.9.6 Time Effects
			2.9.7 Leaching, Ion Exchange, and Differential Solution
			2.9.8 Jointing and Fissuring of Clay Soils
			2.9.9 Biological Effects
			2.9.10 Human Effects
		2.10 Concluding Comments
		Questions and Problems
	List of Symbols
	References
	Index
	Front Matter
	Table of Contents
	3. Soil Mineralogy
		3.1 Importance of Soil Mineralogy in Geotechnical Engineering
		3.2 Atomic Structure
		3.3 Interatomic Bonding
			3.3.1 Primary Bonds
			3.3.2 Bonding in Soil Minerals
		3.4 Secondary Bonds
			3.4.1 The Hydrogen Bond
			3.4.2 van der Waals Bonds
		3.5 Crystals and Their Properties
			3.5.1 Crystal Formation
			3.5.2 Characteristics of Crystals
		3.6 Crystal Notation
		3.7 Factors Controlling Crystal Structures
		3.8 Silicate Crystals
		3.9 Surfaces
		3.10 Gravel, Sand, and Silt Particles
		3.11 Soil Minerals and Materials Formed by Biogenic and Geochemical Processes
		3.12 Summary of Nonclay Mineral Characteristics
		3.13 Structural Units of the Layer Silicates
			3.13.1 Silica Sheet
			3.13.2 Silica Chains
			3.13.3 Octahedral Sheet
		3.14 Synthesis Pattern and Classification of the Clay Minerals
			3.14.1 Isomorphous Substitution
		3.15 Intersheet and Interlayer Bonding in the Clay Minerals
		3.16 The 1:1 Minerals
			3.16.1 Halloysite
			3.16.2 Isomorphous Substitution and Exchange Capacity
			3.16.3 Morphology and Surface Area
		3.17 Smectite Minerals
			3.17.1 Structure
			3.17.2 Isomorphous Substitution in the Smectite Minerals
			3.17.3 Morphology and Surface Area
			3.17.4 Bentonite
		3.18 Micalike Clay Minerals
			3.18.1 Structure
			3.18.2 Isomorphous Substitution and Exchange Capacity
			3.18.3 Morphology and Surface Area
		3.19 Other Clay Minerals
			3.19.1 Chlorite Minerals
			3.19.2 Chain Structure Clay Minerals
			3.19.3 Mixed-Layer Clays
			3.19.4 Noncrystalline Clay Materials
		3.20 Summary of Clay Mineral Characteristics
		3.21 Determination of Soil Composition
			3.21.1 Introduction
			3.21.2 Methods for Compositional Analysis
			3.21.3 Accuracy of Compositional Analysis
			3.21.4 General Scheme for Compositional Analysis
		3.22 X-Ray Diffraction Analysis
			3.22.1 X-Rays and Their Generation
			3.22.2 Diffraction of X-Rays
			3.22.3 Detection of Diffracted X-Rays
			3.22.4 Analysis of X-Ray Patterns
			3.22.5 Criteria for Clay Minerals
			3.22.6 Criteria for Nonclay Minerals
			3.22.7 Quantitative Analysis by X-Ray Diffraction
		3.23 Other Methods for Compositional Analysis
			3.23.1 Thermal Analysis
			3.23.2 Optical Microscope
			3.23.3 Electron Microscope
		3.24 Quantitative Estimation of Soil Components
		3.25 Concluding Comments
		Questions and Problems
	List of Symbols
	References
	Index
	Front Matter
	Table of Contents
	4. Soil Composition and Engineering Properties
		4.1 Introduction
		4.2 Approaches to the Study of Composition and Property Interrelationships
		4.3 Engineering Properties of Granular Soils
			4.3.1 Particle Size and Distribution
			4.3.2 Particle Shape
			4.3.3 Particle Stiffness
			4.3.4 Particle Strength
		4.4 Dominating Influence of the Clay Phase
		4.5 Atterberg Limits
			4.5.1 Liquid Limit
			4.5.2 Plastic Limit
			4.5.3 Liquidity Index
		4.6 Activity
		4.7 Influences of Exchangeable Cations and pH
		4.8 Engineering Properties of Clay Minerals
			4.8.1 Atterberg Limits
			4.8.2 Particle Size and Shape
			4.8.3 Hydraulic Conductivity (Permeability)
			4.8.4 Shear Strength
			4.8.5 Compressibility
			4.8.6 Swelling and Shrinkage
			4.8.7 Time-Dependent Behavior
		4.9 Effects of Organic Matter
		4.10 Concluding Comments
		Questions and Problems
	List of Symbols
	References
	Index
	Front Matter
	Table of Contents
	5. Soil Fabric and Its Measurement
		5.1 Introduction
		5.2 Definitions of Fabrics and Fabric Elements
			5.2.1 Particle Associations in Clay Suspensions
			5.2.2 Particle Associations in Soils
			5.2.3 Fabric Scale
		5.3 Single-Grain Fabrics
			5.3.1 Direct Observation of Cohesionless Soil Fabric
			5.3.2 Packing of Equal-Sized Spheres
			5.3.3 Particle Packings in Granular Soils
		5.4 Contact Force Characterization Using Photoelasticity
		5.5 Multigrain Fabrics
		5.6 Voids and Their Distribution
		5.7 Sample Acquisition and Preparation for Fabric Analysis
			5.7.1 Sample Preparation for Fabric Analysis
			5.7.2 Preparation of Surfaces for Study
		5.8 Methods for Fabric Study
			5.8.1 Polarizing Microscope
			5.8.2 Electron Microscope
			5.8.3 Environmental SEM
			5.8.4 Image Analysis
			5.8.5 X-Ray Diffraction
			5.8.6 Transmission X-Ray and Computed Tomography Scan
		5.9 Pore Size Distribution Analysis
			5.9.1 Volumetric Pore Size Distribution Determinations
			5.9.2 Image Analysis
		5.10 Indirect Methods for Fabric Characterization
			5.10.1 Elastic Wave Propagation
			5.10.2 Dielectric Dispersion and Electrical Conductivity
			5.10.3 Thermal Conductivity
			5.10.4 Mechanical Properties
		5.11 Concluding Comment
		Questions and Problems
	List of Symbols
	References
	Index
63027_07.pdf
	Front Matter
	Table of Contents
	7. Effective, Intergranular, and Total Stress
		7.1 Introduction
		7.2 Principle of Effective Stress
		7.3 Force Distributions in a Particulate System
		7.4 Interparticle Forces
			7.4.1 Interparticle Repulsive Forces
			7.4.2 Interparticle Attractive Forces
		7.5 Intergranular Pressure
		7.6 Water Pressures and Potentials
		7.7 Water Pressure Equilibrium in Soil
		7.8 Measurement of Pore Pressures in Soils
		7.9 Effective and Intergranular Pressure
		7.10 Assessment of Terzaghi's Equation
		7.11 Water-Air Interactions in Soils
		7.12 Effective Stress in Unsaturated Soils
		7.13 Concluding Comments
		Questions and Problems
	List of Symbols
	References
	Index
63027_07.pdf
	Front Matter
	Table of Contents
	7. Effective, Intergranular, and Total Stress
		7.1 Introduction
		7.2 Principle of Effective Stress
		7.3 Force Distributions in a Particulate System
		7.4 Interparticle Forces
			7.4.1 Interparticle Repulsive Forces
			7.4.2 Interparticle Attractive Forces
		7.5 Intergranular Pressure
		7.6 Water Pressures and Potentials
		7.7 Water Pressure Equilibrium in Soil
		7.8 Measurement of Pore Pressures in Soils
		7.9 Effective and Intergranular Pressure
		7.10 Assessment of Terzaghi's Equation
		7.11 Water-Air Interactions in Soils
		7.12 Effective Stress in Unsaturated Soils
		7.13 Concluding Comments
		Questions and Problems
	List of Symbols
	References
	Index
63027_08.pdf
	Front Matter
	Table of Contents
	8. Soil Deposits - Their Formation, Structure, Geotechnical Properties, and Stability
		8.1 Introduction
		8.2 Structure Development
			8.2.1 Early Concepts
			8.2.2 General Considerations in Structure Development
			8.2.3 Residual Soils
			8.2.4 Alluvial Soils
			8.2.5 Aeolian Soils
			8.2.6 Glacial Deposits
			8.2.7 Remolded and Compacted Soil Fabrics
			8.2.8 Effects of Postformational Changes
		8.3 Residual Soils
			8.3.1 Tropical Soils
			8.3.2 Saprolite
			8.3.3 Decomposed Granite
			8.3.4 Colluvial Soils
			8.3.5 Pyritic Soils
		8.4 Surficial Residual Soils and Taxonomy
		8.5 Terrestrial Deposits
			8.5.1 Aeolian Deposits
			8.5.2 Glacial Deposits
			8.5.3 Alluvial Deposits
			8.5.4 Lacustrine and Paludal Deposits
		8.6 Mixed Continental and Marine Deposits
			8.6.1 Littoral Deposits
			8.6.2 Estuarine Deposits
			8.6.3 Deltaic Deposits
		8.7 Marine Deposits
			8.7.1 Neritic Deposits
			8.7.2 Bathyal Deposits
			8.7.3 Abyssal Deposits
		8.8 Chemical and Biological Deposits
		8.9 Fabric, Structure, and Property Relationships: General Considerations
		8.10 Soil Fabric and Property Anisotropy
			8.10.1 Sands and Silts
			8.10.2 Clays
		8.11 Sand Fabric and Liquefaction
		8.12 Sensitivity and Its Causes
			8.12.1 Composition of Sensitive Clays
			8.12.2 Fabric of Sensitive Clays
			8.12.3 Causes of Sensitivity
			8.12.4 Aging of Quick Clay Samples
			8.12.5 Significance of Aging in Practice
			8.12.6 Summary of Sensitivity-Causing Mechanisms
		8.13 Property Interrelationships in Sensitive Clays
			8.13.1 General Characteristics of Sensitive Clays
			8.13.2 Property, Effective Stress, and Water Content Relationships
			8.13.3 Sensitivity-Effective Stress-Liquidity Index Relationship
		8.14 Dispersive Clays
		8.15 Slaking
		8.16 Collapsing Soils and Swelling Soils
		8.17 Hard Soils and Soft Rocks
		8.18 Concluding Comments
		Questions and Problems
	List of Symbols
	References
	Index
63027_09.pdf
	Front Matter
	Table of Contents
	9. Conduction Phenomena
		9.1 Introduction
		9.2 Flow Laws and Interrelationships
		9.3 Hydraulic Conductivity
			9.3.1 Theoretical Equations for Hydraulic Conductivity
			9.3.2 Validity of Darcy's Law
			9.3.3 Anisotropy
			9.3.4 Fabric and Hydraulic Conductivity
		9.4 Flows through Unsaturated Soils
		9.5 Thermal Conductivity
		9.6 Electrical Conductivity
			9.6.1 Nonconductive Particle Models
			9.6.2 Conductive Particle Models
			9.6.3 Alternating Current Conductivity and Dielectric Constant
		9.7 Diffusion
		9.8 Typical Ranges of Flow Parameters
		9.9 Simultaneous Flows of Water, Current, and Salts through Soil-Coupled Flows
		9.10 Quantification of Coupled Flows
			9.10.1 Direct Observational Approach
			9.10.2 General Theory for Coupled Flows
			9.10.3 Application
		9.11 Simultaneous Flows of Water, Current, and Chemicals
		9.12 Electrokinetic Phenomena
			9.12.1 Electroosmosis
			9.12.2 Streaming Potential
			9.12.3 Electrophoresis
			9.12.4 Migration or Sedimentation Potential
		9.13 Transport Coefficients and the Importance of Coupled Flows
			9.13.1 Coupling Influences on Hydraulic Flow
			9.13.2 Coupling Influences on Electrical Flow
			9.13.3 Coupling Influences on Chemical Flow
		9.14 Compatibility - Effects of Chemical Flows on Properties
			9.14.1 Chemical Compatibility and Hydraulic Conductivity
		9.15 Electroosmosis
			9.15.1 Helmholtz and Smoluchowski Theory
			9.15.2 Schmid Theory
			9.15.3 Spiegler Friction Model
			9.15.4 Ion Hydration
		9.16 Electroosmosis Efficiency
			9.16.1 Saxen's Law Prediction of Electroosmosis from Streaming Potential
			9.16.2 Energy Requirements
			9.16.3 Relationship between k_e and k_i
		9.17 Consolidation by Electroosmosis
			9.17.1 Assumptions
			9.17.2 Governing Equations
			9.17.3 Amount of Consolidation
			9.17.4 Rate of Consolidation
		9.18 Electrochemical Effects
		9.19 Electrokinetic Remediation
		9.20 Self-Potentials
			9.20.1 Generation of Self-Potentials in Soil Layers
			9.20.2 Excess Pore Pressure Generation by Self-Potentials
			9.20.3 Landslide Stabilization Using Short-Circuit Conductors
		9.21 Thermally Driven Moisture Flow
		9.22 Ground Freezing
			9.22.1 Depth of Frost Penetration
			9.22.2 Frost Heaving
			9.22.3 Thaw Consolidation and Weakening
			9.22.4 Ground Strengthening and Flow Barriers by Artificial Ground Freezing
		9.23 Concluding Comments
		Questions and Problems
	List of Symbols
	References
	Index
63027_10.pdf
	Front Matter
	Table of Contents
	10. Volume Change Behavior
		10.1 Introduction
		10.2 General Volume Change Behavior of Soils
		10.3 Preconsolidation Pressure
		10.4 Factors Controlling Resistance to Volume Change
		10.5 Physical Interactions in Volume Change
		10.6 Fabric, Structure, and Volume Change
			10.6.1 Shrinkage
			10.6.2 Collapse
			10.6.3 Compression
			10.6.4 Swelling
		10.7 Osmotic Pressure and Water Adsorption Influences on Compression and Swelling
			10.7.1 Applicability of Osmotic Pressure Concepts
			10.7.2 Homoionic Cation Systems
			10.7.3 Mixed-Cation Systems
			10.7.4 Summary
			10.7.5 Water Adsorption Theory of Swelling
		10.8 Influences of Mineralogical Detail in Soil Expansion
			10.8.1 Crystal Lattice Configuration Effects
			10.8.2 Hydroxy Interlayering
			10.8.3 Salt Heave
			10.8.4 Impact of Pyrite
			10.8.5 Bacterially Generated Heave - Case History
			10.8.6 Sulfate-Induced Swelling of Cement- and Lime-Stabilized Soils
		10.9 Consolidation
			10.9.1 Ranges of Compressibility and Consolidation Parameters
			10.9.2 Shortcomings of Simple Theory for Predicting Volume Change and Settlements
			10.9.3 Effects of Sample Disturbance
		10.10 Secondary Compression
		10.11 In Situ Horizontal Stress (K_0)
			10.11.1 Development of Horizontal Stress
			10.11.2 Effect of Lateral Yielding on the Coefficient of Earth Pressure
			10.11.3 Anisotropy
			10.11.4 Time Dependence of Lateral Earth Pressure at Rest
		10.12 Temperature-Volume Relationships
			10.12.1 Theoretical Analysis
			10.12.2 Volume Change Behavior
			10.12.3 Pore Pressure Behavior
		10.13 Concluding Comments
		Questions and Problems
	List of Symbols
	References
	Index
63027_11a.pdf
	Front Matter
	Table of Contents
	11. Strength and Deformation Behavior
		11.1 Introduction
		11.2 General Characteristics of Strength and Deformation
			11.2.1 Strength
			11.2.2 Stress-Strain Behavior
		11.3 Fabric, Structure, and Strength
			11.3.1 Fabric Changes during Shear of Cohesionless Materials
			11.3.2 Compaction versus Overconsolidation of Sand
			11.3.3 Effect of Clay Structure on Deformations
			11.3.4 Structure, Effective Stresses, and Strength
		11.4 Friction between Solid Surfaces
			11.4.1 Basic ''Laws'' of Friction
			11.4.2 Surface Roughness
			11.4.3 Surface Adsorption
			11.4.4 Adhesion Theory of Friction
			11.4.5 Sliding Friction
		11.5 Frictional Behavior of Minerals
			11.5.1 Nonclay Minerals
			11.5.2 Clay Minerals
		11.6 Physical Interactions among Particles
			11.6.1 Strong Force Networks and Weak Clusters
			11.6.2 Buckling, Sliding, and Rolling
			11.6.3 Fabric Anisotropy
			11.6.4 Changes in Number of Contacts and Microscopic Voids
			11.6.5 Macroscopic Friction Angle versus Interparticle Friction Angle
			11.6.6 Effects of Particle Shape and Angularity
		11.7 Critical State: A Useful Reference Condition
			11.7.1 Clays
			11.7.2 Sands
		11.8 Strength Parameters for Sands
			11.8.1 Early Studies
			11.8.2 Critical State Friction Angle
			11.8.3 Peak Friction Angle
			11.8.4 Undrained Strengths
		11.9 Strength Parameters for Clays
			11.9.1 Friction Angles
			11.9.2 Failure Envelope for Overconsolidated Clays
			11.9.3 Undrained Shear Strength
		11.10 Behavior After Peak and Strain Localization
		11.11 Residual State and Residual Strength
			11.11.1 Nonclay Minerals
			11.11.2 Influence of Increasing Clay Content
			11.11.3 Clay Minerals
		11.12 Intermediate Stress Effects and Anisotropy
			11.12.1 Sands
			11.12.2 Clays
			11.12.3 Failure Envelopes
			11.12.4 Fabric Anisotropy
		11.13 Resistance to Cyclic Loading and Liquefaction
			11.13.1 Drained Behavior
			11.13.2 Undrained Behavior
			11.13.3 Residual Strength after Liquefaction
		11.14 Strength of Mixed Soils
		11.15 Cohesion
			11.15.1 Possible Sources of True Cohesion
			11.15.2 Apparent Cohesion
			11.15.3 Summary
		11.16 Fracturing of Soils
			11.16.1 Fracture under Undrained Conditions
			11.16.2 Fracture under Drained Conditions
			11.16.3 Desiccation Cracks
			11.16.4 Fracture Propagation
		11.17 Deformation Characteristics
		11.18 Linear Elastic Stiffness
		11.19 Transition from Elastic to Plastic States
			11.19.1 Sands and Gravels
			11.19.2 Clays
		11.20 Plastic Deformation
			11.20.1 Yield Envelope and Hardening
			11.20.2 Magnitude of Plastic Strains and Stress-Dilatancy
		11.21 Temperature Effects
		11.22 Concluding Comments
		Questions and Problems
	List of Symbols
	References
	Index
63027_11b.pdf
	Front Matter
	Table of Contents
	11. Strength and Deformation Behavior
		11.1 Introduction
		11.2 General Characteristics of Strength and Deformation
			11.2.1 Strength
			11.2.2 Stress-Strain Behavior
		11.3 Fabric, Structure, and Strength
			11.3.1 Fabric Changes during Shear of Cohesionless Materials
			11.3.2 Compaction versus Overconsolidation of Sand
			11.3.3 Effect of Clay Structure on Deformations
			11.3.4 Structure, Effective Stresses, and Strength
		11.4 Friction between Solid Surfaces
			11.4.1 Basic ''Laws'' of Friction
			11.4.2 Surface Roughness
			11.4.3 Surface Adsorption
			11.4.4 Adhesion Theory of Friction
			11.4.5 Sliding Friction
		11.5 Frictional Behavior of Minerals
			11.5.1 Nonclay Minerals
			11.5.2 Clay Minerals
		11.6 Physical Interactions among Particles
			11.6.1 Strong Force Networks and Weak Clusters
			11.6.2 Buckling, Sliding, and Rolling
			11.6.3 Fabric Anisotropy
			11.6.4 Changes in Number of Contacts and Microscopic Voids
			11.6.5 Macroscopic Friction Angle versus Interparticle Friction Angle
			11.6.6 Effects of Particle Shape and Angularity
		11.7 Critical State: A Useful Reference Condition
			11.7.1 Clays
			11.7.2 Sands
		11.8 Strength Parameters for Sands
			11.8.1 Early Studies
			11.8.2 Critical State Friction Angle
			11.8.3 Peak Friction Angle
			11.8.4 Undrained Strengths
		11.9 Strength Parameters for Clays
			11.9.1 Friction Angles
			11.9.2 Failure Envelope for Overconsolidated Clays
			11.9.3 Undrained Shear Strength
		11.10 Behavior After Peak and Strain Localization
		11.11 Residual State and Residual Strength
			11.11.1 Nonclay Minerals
			11.11.2 Influence of Increasing Clay Content
			11.11.3 Clay Minerals
		11.12 Intermediate Stress Effects and Anisotropy
			11.12.1 Sands
			11.12.2 Clays
			11.12.3 Failure Envelopes
			11.12.4 Fabric Anisotropy
		11.13 Resistance to Cyclic Loading and Liquefaction
			11.13.1 Drained Behavior
			11.13.2 Undrained Behavior
			11.13.3 Residual Strength after Liquefaction
		11.14 Strength of Mixed Soils
		11.15 Cohesion
			11.15.1 Possible Sources of True Cohesion
			11.15.2 Apparent Cohesion
			11.15.3 Summary
		11.16 Fracturing of Soils
			11.16.1 Fracture under Undrained Conditions
			11.16.2 Fracture under Drained Conditions
			11.16.3 Desiccation Cracks
			11.16.4 Fracture Propagation
		11.17 Deformation Characteristics
		11.18 Linear Elastic Stiffness
		11.19 Transition from Elastic to Plastic States
			11.19.1 Sands and Gravels
			11.19.2 Clays
		11.20 Plastic Deformation
			11.20.1 Yield Envelope and Hardening
			11.20.2 Magnitude of Plastic Strains and Stress-Dilatancy
		11.21 Temperature Effects
		11.22 Concluding Comments
		Questions and Problems
	List of Symbols
	References
	Index
63027_12.pdf
	Front Matter
	Table of Contents
	12. Time Effects on Strength and Deformation
		12.1 Introduction
		12.2 General Characteristics
		12.3 Time-Dependent Deformation-Structure Interaction
			12.3.1 Time-Dependent Process of Particle Rearrangement
			12.3.2 Particle Breakage during Creep
			12.3.3 Aging - Time-Dependent Strengthening of Soil Structure
			12.3.4 Time-Dependent Changes in Soil Fabric
			12.3.5 Time-Dependent Changes in Physicochemical Interaction of Clay and Pore Fluid
		12.4 Soil Deformation as a Rate Process
			12.4.1 Concept of Activation
			12.4.2 Activation Frequency
			12.4.3 Strain Rate Equation
			12.4.4 Soil Deformation as a Rate Process
			12.4.5 Arrhenius Equation
		12.5 Bonding, Effective Stresses, and Strength
			12.5.1 Deformation Parameters from Creep Test Data
			12.5.2 Activation Energies for Soil Creep
			12.5.3 Number of Interparticle Bonds
			12.5.4 Significance of Activation Energy and Bond Number Values
			12.5.5 Hypothesis for Bonding, Effective Stress, and Strength
		12.6 Shearing Resistance as a Rate Process
			12.6.1 Strain Rate Effects
			12.6.2 Effect of Temperature
		12.7 Creep and Stress Relaxation
			12.7.1 Effect of Composition
			12.7.2 Volume Change and Pore Pressures
			12.7.3 Effects of Temperature
			12.7.4 Effects of Test Type, Stress System, and Stress Path
			12.7.5 Interaction between Consolidation and Creep
		12.8 Rate Effects on Stress-Strain Relationships
			12.8.1 Yield and Strength Envelopes of Clays
			12.8.2 Excess Pore Pressure Generation in Normally Consolidated Clays
			12.8.3 Overconsolidated Clays
			12.8.4 Rate Effects on Sands
			12.8.5 Stiffness at Small and Intermediate Strains
			12.8.6 Rate Effects during Cyclic Loading
		12.9 Modeling of Stress-Strain-Time Behavior
			12.9.1 General Stress-Strain-Time Function
			12.9.2 Constitutive Models
		12.10 Creep Rupture
			12.10.1 Causes of Strength Loss during Creep
			12.10.2 Time to Failure
		12.11 Sand Aging Effects and Their Significance
			12.11.1 Increase in Shear Modulus with Time
			12.11.2 Time-Dependent Behavior after Ground Improvement
			12.11.3 Setup of Displacement Piles
		12.12 Mechanical Processes of Aging
		12.13 Chemical Processes of Aging
		12.14 Concluding Comments
		Questions and Problems
	List of Symbols
	References
	Index
63027_symb.pdf
	Front Matter
	Table of Contents
	List of Symbols
	References
	Index
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Fundamentals of
Soil Behavior

Third Edition

James K. Mitchell
Kenichi Soga

JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC.

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Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons Retrieved from: www.knovel.com

Page 2

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data:
Mitchell, James Kenneth, 1930–

Fundamentals of soil behavior / James K. Mitchell, Kenichi
Soga.—3rd ed.

p. cm.
ISBN-13: 978-0-471-46302-7 (cloth : alk. paper)
ISBN-10: 0-471-46302-7 (cloth : alk. paper)

1. Soil mechanics. I. Soga, Kenichi. II. Title.
TA710.M577 2005
624.1�5136—dc22

2004025690

Printed in the United States of America

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

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Page 252

276 9 CONDUCTION PHENOMENA

Table 9.6 Direct and Coupled Flow Phenomena

Gradient X

Flow J Hydraulic Head Temperature Electrical
Chemical

Concentration

Fluid Hydraulic
conduction
Darcy’s law

Thermoosmosis Electroosmosis Chemical
osmosis

Heat Isothermal heat
transfer or
thermal filtration

Thermal
conduction
Fourier’s law

Peltier effect Dufour effect

Current Streaming current Thermoelectricity
Seebeck or
Thompson effect

Electric
conduction
Ohm’s law

Diffusion and
membrane
potentials or
sedimentation
current

Ion Streaming current
ultrafiltration
(also known as
hyperfiltration)

Thermal diffusion
of electrolyte or
Soret effect

Electrophoresis Diffusion Fick’s
law

however, since chemical activity is highly temperature
dependent, it may be a significant process in some
systems. Finally, electrophoresis, the movement of
charged particles in an electrical field, has been used
for concentration of mine waste and high water content
clays.

The relative importance of chemically and electri-
cally driven components of total hydraulic flow is il-
lustrated in Fig. 9.20, based on data from tests on
kaolinite given by Olsen (1969, 1972). The theory for
description of coupled flows is given later. A practical
form of Eq. (9.57) for fluid flow under combined hy-
draulic, chemical, and electrical gradients is


H log(C /C )
EB Aq � �k A � k A � k Ah h c eL L L
(9.58)

in which kh, kc, and ke are the hydraulic, osmotic, and
electroosmotic conductivities,
H is the hydraulic head
difference,
E is the voltage difference, and CA and CB
are the salt concentrations on opposite sides of a clay
layer of thickness L.

In the absence of an electrical gradient, the ratio of
osmotic to hydraulic flows is

q k log(C /C )hc c B A� � (
E � 0) (9.59)� �q k
Hh h
and, in the absence of a chemical gradient, the ratio of
electroosmotic flows to hydraulic flows is

q k
Ehe e� (
C � 0) (9.59a)� �q k
Hh h
The ratio (kc /kh) in Fig. 9.20 indicates the hydraulic
head difference in centimeters of water required to give
a flow rate equal to the osmotic flow caused by a 10-
fold difference in salt concentration on opposite sides
of the layer. The ratio ke /kh gives the hydraulic head
difference required to balance that caused by a 1 V
difference in electrical potentials on opposite sides of
the layer. During consolidation, the hydraulic conduc-
tivity decreases dramatically. However, the ratios kc /kh
and ke /kh increase significantly, indicating that the rel-
ative importance of osmotic and electroosmotic flows
to the total flow increases. Although the data shown in
Fig. 9.20 are shown as a function of the consolidation
pressure, the changes in the values of kc /kh and ke /kh
are really a result of the decrease in void ratio that
accompanies the increase in pressure, as may be seen
in Fig. 9.20c.

These results for kaolinite provide a conservative es-
timate of the importance of osmotic and electroosmotic
flows because coupling effects in kaolinite are usually
smaller than in more active clays, such as montmoril-
lonite-based bentonites. In systems containing confined
clay layers acted on by chemical and/or electrical gra-
dients, Darcy’s law by itself may be an insufficient
basis for prediction of hydraulic flow rates, particularly
if the clay is highly plastic and at a very low void ratio.
Such conditions can be found in deeply buried clay

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Page 253

QUANTIFICATION OF COUPLED FLOWS 277

Figure 9.20 Hydraulic, osmotic, and electroosmotic conductivities of kaolinite (data from
Olsen 1969, 1972): (a) consolidation curve, (b) conductivity values, and (c) conductivities
as a function of void ratio.

and clay shale and in densely compacted clays. For
more compressible clays, the ratios kc /kh and ke /kh may
be sufficiently high to be useful for consolidation by
electrical and chemical means, as discussed later in this
chapter.

9.10 QUANTIFICATION OF COUPLED FLOWS

Quantification of coupled flow processes may be done
by direct, empirical determination of the relevant pa-
rameters for a particular case or by relationships de-
rived from a theoretical thermodynamic analysis of the
complete set of direct and coupled flow equations.

Each approach has advantages and limitations. It is as-
sumed in the following that the soil properties remain
unchanged during the flow processes, an assumption
that may not be justified in some cases. The effects of
flows of different types on the state and properties of
a soil are discussed later in this chapter. However,
when properties are known to vary in a predictable
manner, their variations may be taken into account in
numerical analysis methods.

Direct Observational Approach

In the general case, there may be fluid, chemical, elec-
trical, and heat flows. The chemical flows can be sub-

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Page 503

528 LIST OF SYMBOLS

� disturbance factor
� geometrical packing parameter
� rotation angle of yield envelope
�0, �i constant characteristic of the property and

the clay
� Bishop’s unsaturated effective stress pa-

rameter
� clay plate thickness measured between

centers of surface layer atoms
� deformation parameter in Hertz theory
� displacement, distance
� solid fraction of a contact area
� relative retardation
�p particle eccentricity distance
� dielectric constant, permittivity
� porosity
� strain
�̇ strain rate
�0 permittivity of vacuum, 8.85 �

10�12 C2/(Nm2)
�1 axial strain
�̇a vertical strain rate in one dimensional

consolidation
�ƒ strain at failure
�̇min minimum strain rate
�rd volumetric strain that would occur if

drainage were permitted
�s deviator strain
�̇s deviator strain rate
�v volumetric strain
�̇v volumetric strain rate

E energy dissipated per cycle per unit vol-

ume
� friction angle
� local electrical potential
�� friction angle in effective stress
�b angle defining the rate of increase in shear

strength with respect to soil suction
�c characteristic friction angle
��crit friction angle at critical state
�e, ��e Hvorslev friction parameter
��ƒ friction angle corrected for the work of

dilation
��m peak mobilized friction angle
��r residual friction angle
�repose angle of repose
�v apparent specific volume of the water in

a clay/water system of volume V
��, ��� intergrain sliding friction angle
# dissipation function
activity coefficient
angle between a and b crystallographic

axes
unit weight

̇ shear strain rate
c applied shear strain or cyclic shear strain

amplitude
d dry unit weight
% double layer charge
% specific volume intercept at unit pressure
� dynamic viscosity
� fraction of pore pressure that gives effec-

tive stress
�0 initial anisotropy
! swelling index
!� real relative permittivity
!� polarization loss, imaginary relative per-

mittivity
� compression index
� correction coefficient for frost depth pre-

diction equation
� damping ratio
� decay constant
� pore size distribution index
� separation distance between successive

positions in a structure
� wave length of X ray
� wave length of light
�cs critical state compression index
� chemical potential
� coefficient of friction
� dipole moment
� fusion parameter
� Poisson’s ratio
� viscosity
( critical state stress ratio
� Poisson’s ratio
�b Poisson’s ratio of soil skeleton
� osmotic or swelling pressure
� angle of bedding plane relative to the

maximum principal stress direction
� contact angle
� geometrical packing parameter
� liquid-to-solid contact angle
� orientation angle
� volumetric water content
�m volumetric water content at full saturation
�r residual water content
�s volumetric water content at full saturation
� bulk dry density
� charge density
� mass density
�d bulk dry density
�T resistivity of saturated soil
�w density of water
�W resistivity of soil water
� area occupied per absorbed molecule on

a surface

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Page 504

LIST OF SYMBOLS 529

� double-layer charge
� electrical conductivity
� entropy production
� normal stress
� surface tension of water
� surface charge density
� total stress
�� effective stress
��0 initial effective confining pressure
�1 major principal total stress
�1 tensile strength of the interface bond
��1 major principal effective stress
�1c major principal stress during consolida-

tion
�1ƒ major principal stress at failure
��1ƒƒ major principal effective stress at failure
��2 intermediate principal effective stress
�3 minor principal total stress
��3 minor principal effective stress
�3c minor principal stress during consolida-

tion
��3ƒƒ minor principal effective stress at failure
��a axial effective stress
��ac axial consolidation stress
�as interfacial tension between air and solid
�aw interfacial tension between air and water
�c crushing strength of particles
�c tensile strength of cement
�e electrical conductivity
��e equivalent consolidation pressure
�eƒƒ effective AC conductivity
�ƒ partial stress increment for fluid phase
��ƒ effective normal stress on shear plane
�ƒƒ normal total stress on failure plane
��ƒƒ normal effective stress on failure plane
�h electrical conductivity due to hydraulic

flow
��h0 initial horizontal effective stress
��i effective stress in the i-direction
��i intergranular stress
��i isotropic consolidation
�iso isotropic total stress
�max maximum principal stress
�min minimum principal stress
��n effective normal stress
��p preconsolidation pressure
�r radial total stress
��r radial effective stress
��rc radial consolidation stress
�s conductivity of soil surface
�s partial stress increment for solid phase
�s tensile strength of the sphere
�T electrical conductivity of saturated soil
�T , ��t tensile strength of cemented soil

�v vertical stress
��v vertical effective stress
�v0 overburden vertical effective stress
��v0 overburden effective stress
��vm maximum past overburden effective stress
��vp vertical preconsolidation stress
�W electrical conductivity of pore water
�ws interfacial tension between water and

solid
�y yield strength
�� circumferential stress
� shear strength
� shear stress
� surface tension
� swelling pressure or matric suction
� undrained shear strength
�a apparent tortuosity factor
�c applied shear stress
�c contaminant film strength
�cy undrained cyclic shear stress
�d drained shear strength
�ƒƒ shear stress at failure on failure plane
�i shear strength
�i shear strength of contact
�m shear strength of solid material in yielded

zone
�peak applied shear stress at peak
�� initial static shear stress
' mass flow factor
' cation valence
� distance function � Kx, double-layer the-

ory
� ratio of average temperature gradient in

air filled pores to overall temperature gra-
dient

� dilation angle
� electrical potential
� intrinsic friction angle
� matric suction
�0 surface potential of double layer
�d displacement pressure
� electrical potential
� state parameter
� total potential of soil water
�0 electrical potential at the surface
�s gravitational potential
�m matrix or capillary potential
�p gas pressure potential
�s osmotic or solute potential
" angular velocity
" frequency
" osmotic efficiency
true electroosmotic flow
� zeta potential

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