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TitleA Working Guide to Process Equipment
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Table of Contents
                            Cover
Title Page
Copyright Page
Dedication
About the Authors
Contents
Foreword
Preface to the Fourth Edition
Preface to the Third Edition
Preface to the Second Edition
Preface to the First Edition
Introduction
Acknowledgments
Chapter 1: Process Equipment Fundamentals
	1.1. Frictional Losses
	1.2. Density Difference Induces Flow
	1.3. Natural Thermosyphon Circulation
	1.4. Reducing Hydrocarbon Partial Pressure
	1.5. Corrosion at Home
	1.6. What I Know
		1.6.1. Toilet Training
	1.7. Distillation: The First Application
		1.7.1. Two-Stage Distillation Column
		1.7.2. The Loop Seal
		1.7.3. Size of the Big Can
		1.7.4. Jet Flood
	1.8. Origin of Reflux
	1.9. Glossary
Chapter 2: Basic Terms and Conditions
Chapter 3: How Trays Work: Flooding
	History of Distillation
	3.1. Tray Types
	3.2. Tray Efficiency
	3.3. Downcomer Backup
	3.4. Downcomer Clearance
		3.4.1. Height of Liquid on Tray Deck
	3.5. Vapor-Flow Pressure Drop
		3.5.1. Total Height of Liquid in the Downcomer
	3.6. Jet Flood
	3.7. Incipient Flood
		3.7.1. A Fundamental Concept
		3.7.2. Bypassing Steam Trap Stops Flooding
	3.8. Tower Pressure Drop and Flooding
		3.8.1. Carbon Steel Trays
	3.9. Optimizing Feed Tray Location
	3.10. Catacarb CO2 Absorber Flooding
Chapter 4: How Trays Work: Dumping: Weeping through Tray Decks
	4.1. Tray Pressure Drop
		4.1.1. Total Tray ∆P
		4.1.2. Dry-Tray Pressure Drop
		4.1.3. Hydraulic Tray Pressure Drop
		4.1.4. Calculated Total Tray Pressure Drop
	4.2. Other Causes of Tray Inefficiency
		4.2.1. Out-of-Level Trays
		4.2.2. Loss of Downcomer Seal
		4.2.3. Flooding at Reduced Vapor Rates
	4.3. Bubble-Cap Trays
		4.3.1. Distillation Tower Turndown
	4.4. New High Capacity Trays
	4.5. Calculating Tray Efficiency
Chapter 5: Notes on Tray Design Details
	5.1. Process Design Equipment Details
		5.1.1. Tray Deck Design
		5.1.2. Weir Design
		5.1.3. Tray Ring Area
		5.1.4. Increasing Tower Bubble Area to Reduce Jet Flood
		5.1.5. Changing to Thicker Trays
		5.1.6. Tray Spacing
		5.1.7. Downcomers
		5.1.8. Downcomer Width
		5.1.9. Foaming Services
		5.1.10. Rounded Downcomer Outlets
		5.1.11. Setting the Downcomer Clearance
		5.1.12. Inlet Weirs
		5.1.13. Seal Pan
		5.1.14. Downcomer Bracing Brackets
		5.1.15. Selection of Tray Caps
		5.1.16. Materials of Construction
		5.1.17. Tray Mechanical Details
Chapter 6: Why Control Tower Pressure: Options for Optimizing Tower Operating Pressure
	6.1. Selecting an Optimum Tower Pressure
	6.2. Raising the Tower Pressure Target
	6.3. Lowering the Tower Pressure
		6.3.1. Relative Volatility
		6.3.2. Incipient Flood Point
	6.4. The Phase Rule in Distillation
Chapter 7: What Drives Distillation Towers: Reboiler Function
	7.1. The Reboiler
	7.2. Heat-Balance Calculations
		7.2.1. Effect of Feed Preheat
		7.2.2. Optimizing Feed Preheater Duty
		7.2.3. Multicomponent Systems
		7.2.4. Conversion of Sensible Heat to Latent Heat
		7.2.5. Reduced Molecular Weight
		7.2.6. Internal Reflux Evaporation
		7.2.7. Overview
Chapter 8: How Reboilers Work: Thermosyphon, Gravity Feed, and Forced
	8.1. Thermosyphon Reboilers
		8.1.1. Once-Through Thermosyphon Reboilers
		8.1.2. Circulating Thermosyphon Reboilers
		8.1.3. Circulating Versus Once-Through Thermosyphon Reboilers
		8.1.4. The Super-Fractionation Stage
		8.1.5. Excessive Thermosyphon Circulation
	8.2. Forced-Circulation Reboilers
	8.3. Kettle Reboilers
	8.4. Don’t Forget Fouling
	8.5. Vapor Binding in Steam Reboilers
Chapter 9: Inspecting Tower Internals
	9.1. Tray Deck Levelness
	9.2. Loss of Downcomer Seal Due to Leaks
	9.3. Effect of Missing Caps
	9.4. Repairing Loose Tray Panels
	9.5. Improper Downcomer Clearance
	9.6. Inlet Weirs
	9.7. Seal Pans
	9.8. Drain Holes
	9.9. Vortex Breakers
	9.10. Chimney Tray Leakage
	9.11. Shear Clips
	9.12. Bubble-Cap Trays
	9.13. Final Inspection
		9.13.1. Tower Internal Manways
	9.14. Conclusion
		9.14.1. Tower Checklist Items
	Reference
Chapter 10: How Instruments Work: Levels, Pressures, Flows, and Temperatures
	10.1. Level
		10.1.1. Level Indication
		10.1.2. Level Discrepancies
		10.1.3. Effects of Temperature on Level
		10.1.4. Plugged Taps
		10.1.5. High Liquid Level
	10.2. Foam Affects Levels
		10.2.1. Split Liquid Levels
		10.2.2. Radiation Level Detection
		10.2.3. Lost Radiation Source
	10.3. Pressure
		10.3.1. Pressure Indicators
		10.3.2. Pressure Transducers
		10.3.3. Pressure-Point Location
	10.4. Flow
		10.4.1. Flow Indication
		10.4.2. Checking Flows in the Field
		10.4.3. Other Flow-Measuring Methods
		10.4.4. Glycol-Filled Instrument Lines
		10.4.5. Zeroing Out a Flowmeter
	10.5. Temperature
		10.5.1. Temperature Indication
		10.5.2. Short Thermowells
		10.5.3. Safety Note
		10.5.4. Ram’s-Horn Level Indication
	Reference
Chapter 11: Packed Towers: Better Than Trays?: Packed-Bed Vapor and Liquid Distribution
	11.1. How Packed Towers Work
		11.1.1. Liquid Distribution
		11.1.2. Vapor Distribution
	11.2. Maintaining Functional and Structural Efficiency in Packed Towers
		11.2.1. Pressure Drop
		11.2.2. Flooding in Packed Towers
		11.2.3. Packing Holddowns
		11.2.4. Crushed Packing
	11.3. Advantages of Packing vs. Trays
	Reference
Chapter 12: Steam and Condensate Systems: Water Hammer and Condensate Backup Steam-Side Reboiler Control
	12.1. Steam Reboilers
	12.2. Condensing Heat-Transfer Rates
		12.2.1. Blown Condensate Seal
		12.2.2. Condensate Backup
	12.3. Maintaining System Efficiency
		12.3.1. Steam Flow Control
		12.3.2. Condensate Control
	12.4. Carbonic Acid Corrosion
		12.4.1. Channel Head Leaks
	12.5. Condensate Collection Systems
		12.5.1. Water Hammer
		12.5.2. Condensate Backup in Reboilers
		12.5.3. Contaminated Condensate Reuse
	12.6. Deaerators
		12.6.1. Deaerator Flooding
	12.7. Surface Condensers
		12.7.1. Steam Turbine Surface Condensers
Chapter 13: Vapor Lock and Exchanger Flooding in Steam Systems
	13.1. Function of the Steam Trap
	13.2. Non-condensable Venting
	13.3. Corrosive Steam
	13.4. Condensate Drum
	13.5. Condensate Drainage and Vapor Lock
		13.5.1. Effect of Vapor Lock
		13.5.2. Design Options to Mitigate Vapor Lock
	13.6. Elevated Condensate Collection Drum
	13.7. Conclusion
Chapter 14: Bubble Point and Dew Point: Equilibrium Concepts in Vapor-Liquid Mixtures
	14.1. Bubble Point
		14.1.1. Using the Bubble-Point Equation
		14.1.2. Adjusting Temperature to Meet a Product Specification
	14.2. Dew Point
		14.2.1. Dew-Point Calculations
		14.2.2. Using the Dew-Point Equation
		14.2.3. Revised Product Specification
	Reference
Chapter 15: Steam Strippers: Source of Latent Heat of Vaporization
	15.1. Heat of Evaporation
		15.1.1. Example Calculations
		15.1.2. Measuring Evaporation in the Field
	15.2. Stripper Efficiency
		15.2.1. Vapor Distribution in Steam Strippers
		15.2.2. Steam Stripping Water
		15.2.3. Temperature Distribution in Water Strippers
		15.2.4. Reboiled Water Strippers
		15.2.5. Stripping Aromatics from Wastewater
		15.2.6. Side-Stream Stripper Hydraulics
		15.2.7. Liquid-Line ∆P
	References
Chapter 16: Draw-Off Nozzle Hydraulics: Nozzle Cavitation Due to Lack of Hydrostatic Head
	16.1. Nozzle Exit Loss
		16.1.1. Converting ∆H to Pressure Drop
	16.2. Critical Flow
	16.3. Maintaining Nozzle Efficiency
		16.3.1. Nozzle Limitations
		16.3.2. Effect of Bubble-Point Liquid
		16.3.3. Cavitation
		16.3.4. External Restrictions
		16.3.5. Increasing Flow from a Draw-Off Sump
	16.4. Overcoming Nozzle Exit Loss Limits
		16.4.1. The Rule of Errors
		16.4.2. Nozzle Exit Loss Calculation
		16.4.3. Pressure Recovery in Nozzles
	Reference
Chapter 17: Pumparounds and Tower Heat Flows: Closing the Tower Enthalpy Balance
	17.1. The Pumparound
		17.1.1. Pumparound Heat Removal
		17.1.2. Purpose of a Pumparound
		17.1.3. Do Pumparounds Fractionate?
	17.2. Vapor Flow
		17.2.1. How Top Reflux Affects Vapor Flow
		17.2.2. Reflux Effect on Vapor Molecular Weight
		17.2.3. Reflux Effect on Vapor Volume
	17.3. Fractionation
		17.3.1. Improving Fractionation
		17.3.2. Flooding the Fractionation Trays
Chapter 18: Condensers and Tower Pressure Control: Hot-Vapor Bypass: Flooded Condenser Control
	18.1. Subcooling, Vapor Binding, and Condensation
		18.1.1. Subcooling
		18.1.2. Air Lock
		18.1.3. Condensation and Condenser Design
	18.2. Pressure Control
		18.2.1. Tower Pressure Control
		18.2.2. Hot-Vapor Bypass
		18.2.3. Flooded Condenser Pressure Control
		18.2.4. Partial Condensation
		18.2.5. Slug Flow in Risers
Chapter 19: Air Coolers: Fin-Fan Coolers
	19.1. Fin Fouling
	19.2. Fan Discharge Pressure
	19.3. Effect of Reduced Air Flow
	19.4. Adjustments and Corrections to Improve Cooling
		19.4.1. Adjusting Fan Speed
		19.4.2. Use of Water Sprays on Air Coolers
		19.4.3. Air Cooler Fan Alignment
	19.5. Designing for Efficiency
		19.5.1. Tube-Side Construction
		19.5.2. Parallel Air Coolers
		19.5.3. Air-Cooled Condensers
Chapter 20: Thermodynamics: How It Applies to Process Equipment
	20.1. Why Is Thermodynamics Important to the Plant Operator?
	20.2. The Source of Steam Velocity
		20.2.1. How to Convert Heat into Motion
		20.2.2. Isoentropic Expansion
	20.3. Converting Latent Heat to Velocity
	20.4. Effect of Wet Steam
		20.4.1. Momentum in Steam Turbines
	20.5. Steam Ejector Temperature Profile
	20.6. Roto-Flow Turbo Expander
	20.7. The Meaning of Entropy
Chapter 21: Deaerators and Steam Systems: Generating Steam in Boilers and BFW Preparation
	21.1. Boiler Feedwater
		21.1.1. Sources of Boiler Feedwater
		21.1.2. Deaerators
	21.2. Boilers
		21.2.1. Superheaters and Economizers
		21.2.2. Waste-Heat Boilers
		21.2.3. Identifying Waste-Heat Boiler Tube Leaks
	21.3. Convective Section Waste-Heat Steam Generation
	References
Chapter 22: Steam Generation
	22.1. Boiler Blowdown Rate
	22.2. Types of Steam-Generating Equipment
		22.2.1. Controlling Steam Drum Levels
		22.2.2. Superheating Steam
	22.3. Boiler Feed Water Preparation
		22.3.1. Condensate Polishing
		22.3.2. Coordinated Phosphate-pH Boiler Water Treatment
		22.3.3. Demineralization of BFW
	22.4. Effect of Air Preheat on Boiler Capacity
		22.4.1. Adjusting Excess O2
	22.5. Deaerator Operation
	22.6. Boiler Feedwater Preheat
	22.7. Boiler Thermal Efficiency
	22.8. Sloped Demister
	References
Chapter 23: Vacuum Systems: Steam Jet Ejectors
	23.1. Theory of Operation
	23.2. Converging and Diverging Compression
		23.2.1. Converging Compression—Sonic Boost
		23.2.2. Diverging Compression—Velocity Boost
	23.3. Calculations, Performance Curves, and Other Measurements in Jet Systems
		23.3.1. Vacuum Measurement
		23.3.2. Compression Ratio
		23.3.3. Jet Discharge Pressure
		23.3.4. Multistage Jet Systems
		23.3.5. Jet Performance Curves
		23.3.6. Measuring Deep Vacuums
		23.3.7. Jet Malfunctions
		23.3.8. Loss of Sonic Boost
		23.3.9. Restoring Critical Flow
		23.3.10. Calculating Sonic Velocity
		23.3.11. Effect of Gas Rate
		23.3.12. Reducing Primary-Jet Discharge Pressure
		23.3.13. Condensate Backup
		23.3.14. Jet Freeze-Up
		23.3.15. Wet Steam
		23.3.16. Don’t Know Why, But It Happens
	23.4. Optimum Vacuum Tower-Top Temperature
	23.5. Measurement of a Deep Vacuum without Mercury
		23.5.1. Troubleshooting Vacuum Systems
	Reference
Chapter 24: Steam Turbines: Use of Horsepower Valves and Correct Speed Control
	24.1. Principle of Operation and Calculations
		24.1.1. A Simple Steam Turbine
		24.1.2. Calculating Work Available from Motive Steam
		24.1.3. Exhaust Steam Conditions
		24.1.4. Horsepower Valves
		24.1.5. Speed Valves
	24.2. Selecting Optimum Turbine Speed
		24.2.1. An Old, But Better, Idea
		24.2.2. Steam Rack
		24.2.3. Condensing Turbines
Chapter 25: Surface Condensers: The Condensing Steam Turbine
	25.1. The Second Law of Thermodynamics
		25.1.1. The Surface Condenser
		25.1.2. Using the Second Law of Thermodynamics
	25.2. Surface Condenser Problems
		25.2.1. Non-condensable Load
		25.2.2. Function of the Final Condenser
		25.2.3. Leaking Ejector Condenser Partition Plate
	25.3. Surface Condenser Heat-Transfer Coefficients
		25.3.1. Effect of Air on Condensate Film Heat Transfer
	References
Chapter 26: Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers: Heat-Transfer Fouling Resistance
	26.1. Allowing for Thermal Expansion
		26.1.1. Designing to Allow for Thermal Expansion
		26.1.2. Differential Rates of Thermal Expansion
	26.2. Heat-Transfer Efficiency
		26.2.1. “No Fooling—No Fouling”
		26.2.2. Multipass Exchangers
		26.2.3. Shell Side vs. Tube Side
	26.3. Exchanger Cleaning
		26.3.1. U-Tube Bundles
	26.4. Mechanical Design for Good Heat Transfer
		26.4.1. Selecting Proper Tube Pitch
		26.4.2. Two-Pass Shell
		26.4.3. Double-Pipe Exchangers
		26.4.4. Fin Tubes
		26.4.5. Heat-Transfer Resistance
	26.5. Importance of Shell-Side Cross-Flow
		26.5.1. Detecting Tube Leaks On-Stream
	References
Chapter 27: Heat Exchanger Innovations
	27.1. Smooth High Alloy Tubes
	27.2. Low-Finned Tubes
	27.3. Sintered Metal Tubes
	27.4. Spiral Heat Exchanger
	27.5. Tube Inserts
		27.5.1. Spirelf Tube Insert
		27.5.2. Turbotal Tube Insert
		27.5.3. Fixotal Tube Insert
		27.5.4. General Comments on Spirelf, Turbotal, and Fixotal Tube Inserts
		27.5.5. Air Cooler Retrofit
		27.5.6. Concluding Thoughts on Wire Spring Turbulators
	27.6. Twisted Tubes and Twisted Tube Bundle
		27.6.1. Twisted Tubes Are Used in Crude Preheat Mainly with Crude on the Tube Side
		27.6.2. Twisted Tubes with the Crude on the Shell Side
		27.6.3. General Problems and Concerns with Twisted Tube Exchangers
	27.7. Helical Tube Support Baffles
	Reference
Chapter 28: Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers: Design Details
	28.1. Selecting the Process Fluid Location
		28.1.1. Shell or Tube Side
		28.1.2. Vortex Shedding
		28.1.3. Adjusting for Cross-Flow Velocity
	28.2. Design the Shell Side for Ease of Cleaning
		28.2.1. Tube Materials
		28.2.2. Tube-Side Velocity Constraints
		28.2.3. Terminal Tube Velocity
		28.2.4. Exchanger Nozzle Sizing
		28.2.5. Impingement Plates and Seal Strips
		28.2.6. Back-Flush Connections—Water Coolers
		28.2.7. Helical Baffles
		28.2.8. Correction Factor for Non-True Countercurrent Flow
		28.2.9. Two-Pass Shell Exchangers
		28.2.10. Selection of Fouling Factors
		28.2.11. Selection of Allowable ∆P
Chapter 29: Fired Heaters: Fire- and Flue-Gas Side: Draft and Afterburn; Optimizing Excess Air
	29.1. Effect of Reduced Air Flow
	29.2. Absolute Combustion
		29.2.1. Oxygen Starvation
		29.2.2. Appearance of the Firebox and Flames
		29.2.3. Secondary Combustion or Afterburn
		29.2.4. Using the Concept of Absolute Combustion in Operations
		29.2.5. Flue-Gas Oxygen and Tramp Air
	29.3. Draft
		29.3.1. Draft Readings
		29.3.2. Draft Balancing
	29.4. Air Leakage
		29.4.1. Evaluating Fuel Wastage Due to Air Leaks
		29.4.2. Minimizing Fuel Wastage Due to Air Leaks
		29.4.3. Patching Air Leaks
	29.5. Efficient Air/Fuel Mixing
	29.6. Optimizing Excess Air
	29.7. Air Preheating, Lighting Burners, and Heat Balancing
		29.7.1. Air Preheaters
		29.7.2. Heater Thumping or Vibration
		29.7.3. Lighting Burners
		29.7.4. Heat Balancing
		29.7.5. Lack of Air Affects Draft and Combustion
	Reference
Chapter 30: Fired Heaters: Process Side: Coking Furnace Tubes and Tube Failures
	30.1. Process Duty versus Heat Liberation
		30.1.1. Distribution of Heat of Combustion
		30.1.2. Reradiation of Heat from Refractory
		30.1.3. Adiabatic Combustion
	30.2. Heater Tube Failures
		30.2.1. High-Temperature Creep
		30.2.2. Purge Steam
		30.2.3. Identifying Thin Tubes and Hot Spots
	30.3. Flow in Heater Tubes
		30.3.1. Loss of Flow
		30.3.2. Annular Flow
	30.4. Low-NOx Burners
	30.5. Tube Fire-Side Heaters
Chapter 31: Refrigeration Systems: An Introduction to Centrifugal Compressors
	31.1. Refrigerant Receiver
		31.1.1. Inventory Control
		31.1.2. Vapor Trap
	31.2. Evaporator Temperature Control
		31.2.1. Spillback
		31.2.2. Discharge Throttling
		31.2.3. Suction Throttling
	31.3. Compressor and Condenser Operation
		31.3.1. Compressor Operation
		31.3.2. Condenser Operation
	31.4. Refrigerant Composition
		31.4.1. Overcoming Speed Limits
		31.4.2. Pressure Rating Limits
Chapter 32: Cooling Water Systems
	32.1. Locating Exchanger Tube Leaks
	32.2. Tube-Side Fouling
	32.3. Changing Tube-Side Passes
	32.4. Cooling Tower pH Control
	32.5. Wooden Cooling Towers
	32.6. Back-Flushing and Air Rumbling
	32.7. Acid Cleaning
	32.8. Increasing Water Flow
	32.9. Piping Pressure Losses
	32.10. Cooling Tower Efficiency
	32.11. Wet Bulb Temperature
	Reference
Chapter 33: Catalytic Effects: Equilibrium and Kinetics
	33.1. Kinetics vs. Equilibrium
	33.2. Temperature vs. Time
	33.3. Purpose of a Catalyst
	33.4. Lessons from Lithuania
		33.4.1. The Celebration Dinner
		33.4.2. Catalytic Effect
	33.5. Zero Order Reactions
	33.6. Runaway Reaction
	33.7. Common Chemical Plant and Refinery Catalytic Processes
		33.7.1. Naphtha Reforming
		33.7.2. Steam-Hydrocarbon Reforming
		33.7.3. Alkylation
		33.7.4. Polymerization
		33.7.5. Sweetening
		33.7.6. White Oil Hydrogenation
		33.7.7. Fluid Catalytic Cracking
		33.7.8. Sulfuric Acid
Chapter 34: Centrifugal Pumps: Fundamentals of Operation: Head, Flow, and Pressure
	34.1. Head
		34.1.1. Hydraulic Hammer
		34.1.2. Momentum
		34.1.3. My Washing Machine
		34.1.4. Acceleration
	34.2. Starting NPSH Requirement
	34.3. Pressure
		34.3.1. Loss of Suction Pressure
		34.3.2. Pump Discharge Pressure
		34.3.3. Feet of Head
		34.3.4. Effect of Specific Gravity
		34.3.5. Pump Curve
		34.3.6. Driver Horsepower
	34.4. Pump Impeller
		34.4.1. Impeller Diameter
		34.4.2. Impeller Rotation
	34.5. Effect of Temperature on Pump Capacity
Chapter 35: Centrifugal Pumps: Driver Limits: Electric Motors and Steam Turbines
	35.1. Electric Motors
		35.1.1. Helper Turbine
		35.1.2. Selecting Motor Size
		35.1.3. Motor Trip Point
		35.1.4. Internal Motor Thermal Protection
		35.1.5. Motor Bearings
	35.2. Steam Turbines
		35.2.1. Turbine Drives
		35.2.2. Increasing the Size of Steam Nozzles
	35.3. Gears
	Reference
Chapter 36: Centrifugal Pumps: Suction Pressure Limits: Cavitation and Net Positive Suction Head
	36.1. Cavitation and Net Positive Suction Head
		36.1.1. Causes of Cavitation
		36.1.2. Cavitation Illustrated
		36.1.3. Starting NPSH Requirement
		36.1.4. A Hunting Story
		36.1.5. Temporary Increase in NPSH
		36.1.6. Why Some Pumps Cavitate
		36.1.7. Vortex Breaker
		36.1.8. Marginal Cavitation
	36.2. Sub-atmospheric Suction Pressure
		36.2.1. Pump Suction under Vacuum
		36.2.2. Sump Pumps
		36.2.3. Loss of Prime
		36.2.4. Self-Flushed Pumps
Chapter 37: Centrifugal Pumps: Reducing Seal and Bearing Failures
	37.1. A Packed Pump
	37.2. Mechanical Seal
	37.3. Purpose of Seal Flush
		37.3.1. Externally Flushed Pumps
	37.4. Seal Leaks
	37.5. Wasting External Seal Flush Oil
	37.6. Double Mechanical Seal
	37.7. Dry Seals
	37.8. Application of Nitrogen Barrier Seals Using Double Mechanical Seals
		37.8.1. Problems with Nitrogen Barrier Dry Seals
	37.9. Steam Use in Seal Chamber
	37.10. Pressure Balancing Holes
	37.11. Bearing Failures
		37.11.1. Oiler Glass Level Discrepancies
		37.11.2. Oil Mist System—Bearing Housing
		37.11.3. Water Accumulation in the Bearing Housing of Turbine-Driven Pumps
		37.11.4. Cloudy Lube Oil
	37.12. Starting a Centrifugal Pump
		37.12.1. Preparation before Starting a Pump
		37.12.2. Start-Up
		37.12.3. Additional Valving for Start-Up
	References
Chapter 38: Control Valves
	38.1. Pumps and Control Valves
	38.2. Operating on the Bad Part of the Curve
	38.3. Control Valve Position
	38.4. Valve Position Dials
	38.5. Air-to-Open Valves
	38.6. Saving Energy in Existing Hydraulic Systems
	38.7. Control Valve Bypasses
	38.8. Plugged Control Valves
Chapter 39: Separators: Vapor-Hydrocarbon-Water: Liquid Settling Rates
	39.1. Gravity Settling
	39.2. Demisters
		39.2.1. Demister Failure
	39.3. Entrainment Due to Foam
	39.4. Water-Hydrocarbon Separations
		39.4.1. Water Settling and Viscosity
		39.4.2. Interface-Level Control
	39.5. Electrically Accelerated Water Coalescing
		39.5.1. Electrostatic Precipitation
		39.5.2. Electric Precipitators in Mist Removal
	39.6. Static Coalescers
Chapter 40: Gas Compression: The Basic Idea: The Second Law of Thermodynamics Made Easy
	40.1. Relationship between Heat and Work
	40.2. Compression Work (Cp - Cv)
	Reference
Chapter 41: Centrifugal Compressors and Surge: Overamping the Motor Driver
	41.1. Centrifugal Compression and Surge
		41.1.1. Mechanically, What Is Surge?
		41.1.2. How Do Centrifugal Compressors Work?
		41.1.3. Aerodynamic Stall
		41.1.4. Required ∆P
		41.1.5. Too Much Polytropic Head
		41.1.6. Effect of Molecular Weight on ∆P
	41.2. Compressor Efficiency
		41.2.1. Maintaining a Constant Suction Drum Pressure
		41.2.2. Variable-Speed Driver
		41.2.3. What about Jane?
		41.2.4. Damming the River Yeo
		41.2.5. Saving Electricity
		41.2.6. Suction Temperature
		41.2.7. Sulfur Plant Air Blower
		41.2.8. Centrifugal Compressor Check Valves and Surge Protection
	41.3. Frequently Asked Questions about Centrifugal Compressors
Chapter 42: Reciprocating Compressors: The Carnot Cycle; Use of Indicator Card
	42.1. Theory of Reciprocating Compressor Operation
		42.1.1. Compression
		42.1.2. Discharge
		42.1.3. Expansion
		42.1.4. Intake
	42.2. The Carnot Cycle
	42.3. The Indicator Card
		42.3.1. Pulsation Losses
		42.3.2. Using the Indicator Card
	42.4. Volumetric Compressor Efficiency
	42.5. Unloaders
		42.5.1. Valve Disablers
		42.5.2. Valve Failure
	42.6. Rod Loading
	42.7. Variable Molecular Weight
		42.7.1. Effect of Gas Density on Flow Indication
Chapter 43: Compressor Efficiency: Effect on Driver Load
	43.1. Jet Engine
	43.2. Controlling Vibration and Temperature Rise
		43.2.1. Vibration
		43.2.2. Temperature Rise
	43.3. Relative Efficiency
		43.3.1. Axial Air Compressor Example
		43.3.2. Parallel Compressors
	43.4. Relative Work: External Pressure Losses
Chapter 44: Safety Concerns: Relief Valves, Corrosion, and Safety Trips
	44.1. Relief-Valve Plugging
	44.2. Relieving to Atmosphere
	44.3. Corrosion Monitoring
		44.3.1. Corrosion Coupons
		44.3.2. Corrosion Probes
	44.4. Alarms and Trips
		44.4.1. Safety Trips
		44.4.2. Compressor Trips
	44.5. Auto-ignition of Hydrocarbons
		44.5.1. A Hazardous Piping Configuration
	44.6. Paper Gaskets
	44.7. Calculating Heats of Reaction
	44.8. Hot Water Explodes Out of Manway
Chapter 45: Relief Valve System Design
	45.1. Coke Drums
	45.2. High-Pressure Fixed-Bed Reactors
	45.3. Trayed Towers and Packed Columns
	45.4. Liquid-Filled Vessels
	45.5. Sour Water Strippers
		45.5.1. Relief Valve Effluent Disposition
	45.6. Protecting Relief Valves from Fouling and Corrosion
	45.7. Dual Relief Valves
	45.8. Process Design Responsibility for Relief Valve Design
	45.9. Relief Valve and Pressure Sensing Connections
	45.10. Heat Exchanger Safety Reliefs
	45.11. Relief Valve Effluents
	45.12. Maintaining Flare Header Positive Pressures
		45.12.1. Flare Water Seal
		45.12.2. Flare Header Purge Gas
	45.13. Leaking Relief Valves
	45.14. Tray Failure Due to Relief Valves
	45.15. The Piper Alpha Rig Destruction
Chapter 46: Corrosion—Process Units
	46.1. Closer to Home
	46.2. Erosive Velocities
	46.3. Mixed Phase Flow
	46.4. Carbonate Corrosion
	46.5. Naphthenic Acid Attack
	46.6. A Short History of Corrosion
		46.6.1. Weak Sulfuric Acid Corrosion
		46.6.2. Hydrogen-Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking
		46.6.3. Erosion-Corrosion Failure
		46.6.4. Summary
	46.7. Corrosion—Fired Heaters
		46.7.1. Stack Integrity
		46.7.2. Air Leaks
		46.7.3. Air Preheaters
		46.7.4. Plugged Air Preheaters
		46.7.5. Reducing Air Preheater Failures
	46.8. Oil-Fired Heaters
	46.9. Finned-Tube Corrosion
	46.10. Field Identification of Piping Metallurgy
Chapter 47: Waste Water Strippers
	47.1. Purpose of Sour Water Strippers
		47.1.1. The Bad Design
		47.1.2. The Wrong Design
		47.1.3. The Best Design
	47.2. Two-Stage Sour Water Stripper
	47.3. Tray Efficiency
	47.4. Computer Simulation and Theoretical Tray Efficiency
	47.5. Use of Caustic to Improve Stripping
	47.6. Water Stripper Reboiler Corrosion and Fouling
	47.7. Ballast Water Stripper
	47.8. Conclusions
	Reference
Chapter 48: Fluid Flow in Pipes: Basic Ideas to Evaluate Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Flow
	48.1. Field Engineer’s Method for Estimating Pipe Flow
		48.1.1. Low-Viscosity Liquids and Vapors in Turbulent Flow
	48.2. Field Pressure Drop Survey
	48.3. Line Sizing for Low-Viscosity and Turbulent Flow
		48.3.1. Not All Fluids Are Created Equal
		48.3.2. Flow Regimes in Newtonian Fluids
		48.3.3. The Importance of the Reynolds Number
		48.3.4. Shear Rate, Shear Stress, and Viscosity in Newtonian Fluids
		48.3.5. Kinematic Viscosity
	48.4. Frictional Pressure Loss in Rough and Smooth Pipe
		48.4.1. Values of Roughness
	48.5. Special Case for Laminar Flow
	48.6. Smooth Pipes and Turbulent Flow
	48.7. Very Rough Pipes and Very Turbulent Flow
	48.8. Non-Newtonian Fluids
	48.9. Some Types of Flow Behavior
		48.9.1. Time-Independent Flow
		48.9.2. Time-Dependent Flow
	48.10. Viscoelastic Fluids
	48.11. Identifying the Type of Flow Behavior
	48.12. Apparent and Effective Viscosity of Non-Newtonian Liquids
	48.13. The Power Law or Ostwald de Waele Model
		48.13.1. Evaluating k and n
	48.14. Generalized Reynolds Numbers
		48.14.1. The Metzner-Reed Reynolds Number, ReMR
		48.14.2. Friction Factor and ReMR
	References
Chapter 49: Super-Fractionation Separation Stage
	49.1. My First Encounter with Super-Fractionation
		49.1.1. The Chickens Come Home to Roost
	49.2. Kettle Reboiler
	49.3. Partial Condenser
		49.3.1. Another Defect
	49.4. Side Reboilers and Intercoolers
Chapter 50: Hand Calculations for Distillation Towers: Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, Absorption, and Stripping Calculations
	50.1. Introduction
	50.2. Bubble Point and Dew Point Calculations
		50.2.1. Bubble Point
		50.2.2. Dew Point
	50.3. The Absorption Factor or Stripping Factor Chart
		50.3.1. Absorption or Stripping Factor Chart for Absorption
		50.3.2. Stripping Factor or Absorption Factor Chart for Stripping
	50.4. Conclusion
	References
Chapter 51: Computer Modeling and Control
	51.1. Modeling a Propane-Propylene Splitter
		51.1.1. Predicting Tray Efficiency vs. Relative Volatility
		51.1.2. The Input Data Problem
		51.1.3. Establishing a Firm Design Basis
		51.1.4. A Monument Rises
	51.2. Computer Control
	51.3. Material Balance Problems in Computer Modeling
		51.3.1. How Steve Could Have Avoided becoming Employee Relations Manager
		51.3.2. Missing Heavier Components from a Vapor Sample
		51.3.3. The Garbage Rule
	51.4. Fourth Edition Update Comments
Chapter 52: Field Troubleshooting Process Problems
	52.1. De-ethanizer Flooding
		52.1.1. What’s Next?
	52.2. The Elements of Troubleshooting
	52.3. Field Calculations
	52.4. Troubleshooting Tools—Your Wrench
	52.5. Field Measurements
		52.5.1. Indirect Flow Measurement
		52.5.2. Using the Infrared Surface Temperature Gun
		52.5.3. Pressure Measurement Problem
	52.6. Troubleshooting Methods
	52.7. Afterword
Glossary
Index
The Norm Lieberman Video Library of Troubleshooting Process Operations
                        

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