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TitleBe Confident. Live by Faith, Not by Sight
File Size13.4 MB
Total Pages292
Table of Contents
                            INTRODUCTION
1. STATE OF THE ART OF THE GaN LEDS TECHNOLOGY
	1.1. HISTORY OF LIGHTING SYSTEMS
		1.1.1. The Sun
		1.1.2. Incandescent Filament Lamp
		1.1.3. Mercury and Sodium Vapor Lamps
		1.1.4. Fluorescent Lamp
		1.1.5. Light–Emitting Diodes (LEDs)
	1.2. LED CHIP STRUCTURES
		1.2.1. Conventional Lateral and Vertical Structure
		1.2.2. Flip Chip Structure
		1.2.3. Vertical Thin Film Structure
		1.2.4. Thin Film Flip Chip Structure
	1.3. PACKAGING OF LEDS
		1.3.1. Low Power LED Package
		1.3.2. High Power LED Package
		1.3.3. Packaging Process
	1.4. MAIN DEGRADATION OF LEDS TECHNOLOGY
		1.4.1. Degradation and Failure Modes at Chip Level
		1.4.2. Interconnection Failure Modes
		1.4.3. Degradation and Failure Modes at Package Level
	1.5. CONCLUSION – CHAPTER 1
2. ELECTRICAL AND OPTICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LEDS
	2.1. METHODOLOGY FOR JUNCTION TEMPERATURE EVALUATION
		2.1.1. Temperature Dependence of Forward Voltage (Vf)
	2.2. OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF LED
		2.2.1. Internal, Extraction, External, and Power Efficiencies
		2.2.2. Emission Spectrum
		2.2.3. Light Escape Cone
		2.2.4. Radiation Pattern–Lambertian Emission Pattern
		2.2.5. Epoxy Encapsulant
		2.2.6. Temperature Dependence of Emission Intensity
3. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP FOR LED AGING EVALUATION
	3.1. A NEW PROTOTYPE OF LED AGING BENCH
	3.2. TEMPERATURE CONTROLLER (REX–D100)
		3.2.1. Software Program for REX–D100 Temperature Controller
		3.2.2. Communication Protocol
	3.3. SOURCE–METER UNIT (SMU–KEITHLEY 2602A)
		3.3.1. 2–Wires and 4–Wires Feature
		3.3.2. Software Program Measurement for SMU–Keithley 2602A
	3.4. IMPEDANCE ANALYZER (SOLARTRON MODULAB)
		3.4.1. Instrument Group Modules
		3.4.2. PC Communication Setup
		3.4.3. Software Program Control of Solartron ModuLab
	3.5. SPECTROMETER (SPECBOS 1201)
		3.5.1. Optical Measurement Hardware Setup
		3.5.2. Software Program Measurement of Specbos 1201
	3.6. LED’S DRIVER
4. EVALUATION OF FAILURE MECHANISMS FOR LED SSTUDIED
	4.1. EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON LED PERFORMANCE
	4.2. SELF−HEATING TEST
	4.3. INITIAL STATE OF ELECTRICAL CHARACTERIZATIONS
	4.4. ELECTRICAL FAILURE SIGNATURES
		4.4.1. Electrical Aging Characteristic of Cree’s Devices
		4.4.2. Electrical Aging Characteristic of Osram’s Devices
		4.4.3. Electrical Aging Characteristic of Philips’s Devices
		4.4.4. Electrical Aging Characteristic of Seoul’s Devices
	4.5. OPTICAL FAILURE SIGNATURES
		4.5.1. Initial State of Photometric Characterization
		4.5.2. Photometrical Characterizations of LEDs under accelerated aging conditions
	4.6. CONCLUSION– CHAPTER 4
GENERAL CONCLUSION AND PERSPECTIVES
REFERENCES
ANNEXES
	APPENDIX A: COMMUNICATION IDENTIFIER LIST OF REX–D100
	APPENDIX B: CONTROLLER SCANNED PARAMETER
	APPENDIX C: PROGRAM CODE FOR REX–D100
	APPENDIX D: PROGRAM CODE FOR SMU KEITHLEY 2602A
	APPENDIX E: SPECTROPHOTOMETER SPECBOS SPREADSHEET DATA EXPORT
	APPENDIX F: DATASHEET OF LEDS
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