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TitleCell and Developmental Biology of Arabinogalactan-Proteins
TagsBiology University Of California
LanguageEnglish
File Size10.3 MB
Total Pages303
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Cell and Developmental Biology
of Arabinogalactan-Proteins

Page 2

Cell and Developmental Biology
of Arabinogalactan-Proteins

Edited by

Eugene A. Nothnagel
University of California
Riverside, California

Antony Bacic

and

Adrienne E. Clarke
University of Melbourne
Parkville, Victoria, Australia

Springer Science+Business Media, LLC

Page 151

12. Regulation ofa Nicotiana Stylar Transmitting Tissue-Specific AGP 141

despite an overall RNA degradative environment, suggests a need to ensure the
presence of adequate amounts of TIS protein in the pollinated styles. Mechanisms
apparently evolved to accomplish this enhancement of TIS expression (Wang et al
1993).

4. REGULATION OF TTS PROTEINS AT THE POST-
TRANSLATIONAL LEVEL

4.1 A NAG1-controlled Pistil Developmental Program
Regulates Post-Translational Modification of TTS Protein

On immunoblots and by histo-immun,?staining, TIS protein was detectable only
in the stylar transmitting tissue (Fig 6A,B) (Wang et al 1993, Cheung et al 1996).
Transgenic N. tabacum plants harboring a chimeric CaMV35S-TTS gene produced
TIS polypeptides constitutively (Fig 6A). In the wild-type styles, TIS protein was
found most predominantly in the molecular weight range between 50 and 100 kDa.
However, all of the ectopically produced TIS protein in the CaMV35S-TTS
transgenic plants was underglycosylated and showed molecular weights below
45 kDa (Fig 6A) (Cheung et al 1996). These protein molecules represented TIS
polypeptides that had been N- and O-glycosylated to extents significantly lower
than that of the predominant TIS protein species found in the stylar transmitting
tissue (see Fig 6D). These results suggest that activities to fully glycosylate TIS
protein were either limiting or absent in all non-stylar transmitting tissue, including
the adjacent stylar cortex and the ovary. However, the extent of glycosylation of the
ectopically expressed TIS polypeptides did not change among transgenic plants
expressing either trace amounts or high levels of these molecules in non-stylar
tissues (H.-M. Wu and A.Y. Cheung, unpublished data). Thus, the presence of a
glyco-linkage(s) in TIS protein requiring an enzyme(s) uniquely active in the stylar
transmitting tissue would be a preferred hypothesis to explain the observed
transmitting tissue-specific glycosylation of TIS polypeptides.

Interestingly, in the CaMV35S-NAG1 (Cheung et a11996) and CaMV35S-AGL5 (D.
Vu and A.Y. Cheung, unpublished data) transgenic plants, ITS mRNA was induced
and was translated in the sepals of the transformed plants. The carpelloid sepal-
produced TIS polypeptides became fully glycosylated as in the wild-type stylar tissue
(Fig 6D). These observations indicate that the activities that fully glycosylate TIS
backbone polypeptides were also activated by the NAG1- and AGL5-controlled pistil
developmental program.

Page 152

142

A

""-WT
L e Pe I

..... 35 -TTS .....

lOv L Se PeS I Sy Ov D

\\1
lyle

I 2

5 -IT
epa!

123

Chapter 12

35 ·:-':AG
pal

I 2

B c

\\'1 lyle 35 -TT slyle

Figure 6. Immunoblot (A) and histo-immunostaining of wild-type (8) and CaMV35S-ITS-transformed
(C) slylar tissues by ITS antibodies. In (A), proteins from wild-type (WT) and CaMV35S-ITS

(35S-ITS)-transformed leaf(L) and floral tissues (Se, sepal; Pe, petal; St, stamen; Sy, stigma and
styles; Ov, ovary) were compared. 8,C. Cross-sections of wild-type and CaMV35S-ITS-transformed

styles stained with ITS antibodies. (E, epidermis; Y, vascular tissue; IT, transmitting tissue).
D. Immunoblotting and ITS antibody staining of proteins isolated from WT styles, CaMV35S-ITS
(35S-ITS)-transformed sepals and CaMV35S-NAGl (35S-NAG)-transformed sepals. Lane I in the

three panels shows proteins directly after extraction from the designated tissue. The same proteins are
shown after chemical deglycosylation (lane 2) or after chemical and enzymatic deglycosylation (lane

3). Adopted with permission from Cheung et a11996, Organ-specific and Agamous-regulated
expression and glycosylation of a pollen tube growth-promoting protein, P~oc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

93: 3853-3858, Fig 2, National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A.

4.2 Glycosylation of TTS and NaTTS Polypeptide Backbones
Is Highly Modulated, Resulting in a Broad Spectrum
of Sugar Modifications That Affect How These Proteins
Interact with the Cell Wall Matrix

The predominant amounts of TIS and NaTIS proteins have sizes between 50
and 105 kDa. They are loosely associated with the transmitting tissue cell wall
matrix and are released from it under a broad range of buffer conditions (Fig 7)
(Wang et al 1993, Cheung et al 1995, Wu et al 2000). A careful analysis of the

Page 302

300

Proline/hydroxyproline-rich
glycoproteins, 11, 14, 21, 32,
34,83,283-284

Prolyl hydroxylation, 63, 84, 194
Promoter analysis: see Transgenic

plants
Prosopis,263-269

laevigata, 265
velutina, 265, 269

Prosopis gum
anatomical site of production, 263
emulsifying properties, 268-269,

271-273
immunological properties, 264-

265,273-274
molecular size, 267-268
structure, 264, 268-269
tannin content, 264-265, 269-271,

275
uses, 263-264

Proteoglycans, 12, 19-20, 95, 153, 280
Protoplasts, 116, 279-281
Pyrus communis, 17, 27-32, 124, 180-

181,277

Radial gel diffusion assay, 5, 172,
175,185,215

Raphanus sativus, 51-60, 97, 99, 188
Rhamnogalacturonan, 222-223, 225-

227
Rhizobium NOD factors, 115, 282
Rhodotorula flava, 54-55, 58
Ribonucleic acid splicing, 34-35, 38
Ricinus communis, 29-30
Rocket electrophoresis, 5, 279
Root development, 96-98, 102-104,

280-281, 287
Rorippa indica, 52
Rosa hybrida, 17, 28, 72-80, 100, 278

Saintpaulia, 192, 197, 200
brevipilosa, 201
diplotricha, 201
grandifolia, 201
ionantha, 201
nitida,201

Index

orbicularis, 201
rupicola, 201
velutina, 201

Scapania nemorosa, 170
Secreted arabinogalactan-proteins,

27,65,124,128,142-144,156,
175-177,290-291

Secretion signal, 15-16, 31, 44, 61, 63,
85-86,124-128,136,181-182,
184

Self-incompatibility gene, 121-123
Signal peptide: see Secretion signal
Signal transduction, 18, 68-69, 80,

139, 165
Silver nitrate, 187
Sisybrium officinale, 51-52, 54
Smith degradation, 5, 59, 255
Sodium dithionite, 18, 185
Solanaceous lectins, 11
Somatic embryogenesis, 71, 98, 100-

102,109-117, In-In, 180, 282
effects of chitinases, 115-116, 282
effects of exogenous

arabinogalactan-proteins,112-
115

effects of Yariv phenylglycoside,
100-102

Stigma: see Pistil
Streptocarpella, 197, 200-201
Streptocarpus, 191-202, 205

candidus, 201
caulescens,201
cyaneus,201
davyii,197-198
dunii,201
eylesii, 201
janniniae, 198
gardenii, 197
glandulossimus, 201
hilsenbergii, 201
holstii, 201
johanus, 201
kirkii,201
modestus,201
nobilis,192
porphyrostachys, 201

Page 303

Index

primulifolius, 196, 201
prolixus, 192-202
rexii,201
saxorum, 201
stromandra, 201
thompsonii,201
wittei,201

Style: see Pistil
Symbiosis, 281
Synechocystis, 34

Tanrrin,254,264-265
Taxonomy, 2, 33
Threonine-rich domain, 182
Tmesipteris tannensis, 170
Torreya californica, 170
Transcriptional regulation, 135-139,

185-186
Transgenic plants

antisense expression, 67, 134
constitutive expression, 141-142
ectopic expression, 139, 141-142
promoter analysis, 136-138, 187

Trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline, 194, 196-
197,208-210

Transmitting tissue: see Pistil
Transmitting-tissue specific protein,

134-147
Trichoderma viride, 54-55, 59
Tridacna maxima, 4
2,3,5-Triiodobenzoic acid, 187, 206,

210,213
Triticum aestivum, 2, 292
Triton X-114 fractionation, 26
Twisted hairy rope model, 12, 14,249

Ultrafiltration, 270-275
Uniconazole, 187

Volvox carteri, 29-30, 32, 37

Wasabia japonica, 52, 54
Wattle-blossom model, 12-13, 242,

249,264,267
Wound response, 5, 186-187, 241, 263

301

Xylem, 65-66, 96-98, 179-189, 288
Xyloglucan,58

Yariv antigen: see Yariv
phenylglycoside

Yariv phenylglycoside, xviii, 2-3, 4,
11, 18, 25, 51-54, 62, 67-68, 72-
73,96,100-105,112, 114, 122,
143, 151, 153-165, 172, 175, 1~
185,211-212,215,224,242,279,
283-288,290-291

Yariv reagent: see Yariv
phenylglycoside

Zamia,170
Zea mays, 27-30, 37, 39, 111, 154, 162,

188-189,284
Zinnia elegans, 29-31
Zygotic embryogenesis, 110-111, 117

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