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TitleChadian and Sudanese Arabic in the Light of Comparative Arabic Dialectology
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Total Pages229
Table of Contents
                            Preface
Table of Contents
Abbreviations
1. Sudanese Colloquial Arabic: The State of the Art
1.1. Dialects of Arabic in the Sudan
1.2. Historical background of the linguistic structure of the Sudan
1.3. Diversity of dialects
1.4. The need for the first English-Arabic vocabulary
1.5. Purpose of a vocabulary
1.6. Characteristics of SCA
1.7. The earliest manuscripts in SCA
1.8. Linguistic features of SCA manuscripts
1.9. Variety of material recorded in the tabaqat
1.10. Early structure of SCA
1.11. Poetic structure of the Šukriyya dialect
1.12. Importance of Amery’s work
1.13. Amery’s approach to the language
1.14. Transcriptional procedure
1.15. Shortcomings of Amery’s transcription
1.16. Voiced pharyngeal spirant in Amery’s transcription
1.17. Further inadequacies in Amery’s transcription
1.18. Classical Arabic influence on Amery’s transcription
1.19. Classicisms in ‘pure’ SCA vocabulary
1.20. ‘Purity’ of the Arabic of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
1.21. Another treatise of SCA
1.22. Sudanese grammar — standard work on SCA
1.23. Nalder’s criticism
1.24. Shortcomings of Worsley’s and Trimingham’s grammars
1.25. Worsley’s statement on description of Sudanese sounds
1.26. Influence of emphatic consonants
1.27. Trimingham’s statement on the same problem
1.28. Counterpoint to Worsley’s statement
1.29. Occurrence of hamza in SCA
1.30. Changes of’
1.31. Accent in SCA
1.32. Increasing publicity of SCA
1.33. Value of Hillelson’s vocabulary
1.34. Hillelson’s contribution to the transcription of SCA
1.35. Hillelson’s concept of a koine for SCA
1.36. Shortcomings of Hillelson’s generalizations
1.37. Uniqueness of Hillelson’s generalizations
1.38. Specialized vocabularies of SCA
1.39. Nicholson and his specialized vocabulary on the water wheel
1.40. Bell’s vocabulary and its shortcomings
1.41. Burton’s work
1.42. Failures of Burton’s description of Arabic sounds ,
1.43. Conveniences of Burton’s work
1.44. Hillelson’s Sudan Arabic Texts
1.45. Modifications of orthography
1.46. Value of Hillelson’s texts
1.47. Hillelson’s texts as a beginning towards a comparative grammar of SCA dialects
1.48. Dialectal variations in SCA
1.49. Manuscripts of SCA dialectology
1.50. Importance of Czapkiewicz’s articles
1.51. Some SCA proverbs according to Czapkiewicz
1.52. Other works on SCA proverbs
1.53. Nursery rhymes
1.54. Atiyah 1918
1.55. Polite phrases and idioms in SCA
1.56. Barclay 1964
1.57. Trimingham 1946
1.58. Second edition of Trimingham’s grammar
1.59. Ferguson’s criticism of Trimingham’s work
1.60. Defects of Trimingham’s work
1.61. Further inadequacies
1.62. False generalizations
1.63. SCA influence in the Sudan
1.64. The need for future SCA studies
1.65. Lack of SCA syntactic analysis in previous works
1.66. Shortcomings of phonemic analysis of SCA
1.67. Need for an Arabic-English dictionary
1.68. Future areas for studies of SCA dialects
1.69. Amery 1905
1.70. Barclay 1965
1.71. Burton 1934
1.72. Czapkiewicz 1959
1.73. Czapkiewicz 1960
1.74. Davies 1925
1.75. Davies 1926
1.76. Davies 1927
1.77. Farmer 1939
1.78. Ferguson 1949
1.79. Field 1952
1.80. Hillelson 1921
1.81. Hillelson 1925a
1.82. Hillelson 1935
1.83. Kensdale 1955
1.84. MacLaughlin 1964
1.85. Trimingham 1946
1.86 Worsley 1925
1.87. Conclusion
Notes to Ch. 1
2. Chadian Arabic: The State of the Art
2.1. Central African varieties of Arabic
2.2. Varieties of Chadian Arabic
2.3. Pidgin Arabic–Immigrant Arabic–Abéché Arabic
2.4. Influence of Arabic on other African languages
2.5. Publications on Arabic dialectology
2.6. Fleisch’s article on Chadian Arabic
2.7. Sources on Chadian Arabic
2.8. Lethem’s work as the main source
2.9. Lethem 1920—the title page
2.10. The purpose of Lethem’s book
2.11. Some highlights of Lethem’s volume
2.12. Lethem’s introductory note
2.13. The origin of the Shuwa Arabs
2.14. Shuwa Arabic–its characteristics
2.15. Consonantal segments
2.16. Vocalic segments
2.17. Personal pronouns
2.18. Pronominal sufixes
2.19. The verb ‘to be’
2.20. The verb ‘to have’
2.21. The negation of nominal sentences
2.22. Interrogation
2.23. Perfect
2.24. Imperfect
2.25. Imperative
2.26. Negative imperative
2.27. Active participle
2.28. Passive participle
2.29. The use of the perfect and imperfect
2.30. The particle hana ‘of’
2.31. Demonstrative pronouns
2.32. Relative pronouns
2.33. The definite article
2.34. Gender
2.35. The dual
2.36. Sound plural
2.37. Broken plural
2.38. Collective nouns
2.39. Cardinal numbers
2.40. Ordinal numbers
2.41. 122 verbs
2.42. Hamzated verbs
2.43. w23 verbs
2.44. 1w/y3 verbs
2.45. 12y verbs
2.46. Doubly weak verbs
2.47. ja ‘to come’ and ra?a ‘to regard’
2.48. Quadriliteral verbs
2.49. Form II
2.50. Form III
2.51. Form IV
2.52. Forms V and VI
2.53. Form VII
2.54. Form VIII
2.55. Form IX
2.56. Form X
2.57. Common prepositions with suffixes
2.58. Materials on Abéché Arabic
2.59. Chadian Arabic text
2.60. Sources of Chadian Arabic text
2.61. Dictionaries for Chadian Arabic
2.62. An Abéché Arabic text
2.63. Translations of the New Testament into Chadian Arabic
2.64. David Cohen’s statement
2.65. A note on informants for Chadian Arabic
Notes to Ch. 2
3. The Arabic Koine
3.1. Modern Arabic dialects
3.2. Ferguson 1959c
3.3 Descent of modern Arabic dialects
3.4. Classical Arabic–the Arabiyya
3.5. Modern dialects as continuations of one homogeneous koine
3.6. Origin of the koine — Ferguson’s hypothesis
3.7. Ferguson’s hypothesis — continuation
3.8. “Drift’ in Arabic
3.9. Bloch 1971
3.10 Ferguson’s fourteen features of the koine
3.11. Numeration, transcription and names of the features
3.12. The purpose of the critique of Ferguson’s hypothesis
3.13. Feature I — Loss of the dual
3.14. Haim Blanc’s statement
3.15. Diachronic aspects of feature I — Blanc 1970
3.16. Completion of the loss of the dual
3.17. Middle Arabic dialects — general
3.18. Blanc’s conclusion
3.19. Feature II — taltalah
3.20. Dialects vs. classical language — Bloch’s statement
3.21. Some differences between the modern Arabic dialects and classical Arabic
3.22. Bloch’s argument vs. Ferguson’s argument
3.23. Common features of Akkadian and classical Arabic
3.24. Ugaritic
3.25. Imperfect pardigm of Hebrew, Syriac, and Ethiopic
3.26. Case of preformative vowel
3.27. Weak verb
3.28. Feature III — Loss of final-HOW verbs
3.29. Feature III as an aspect of ‘drift’
3.30. Feature IV — re-formation of geminate verbs
3.31. Feature IV compared to other classical Semitic languages
3.32. Overall tendency within Semitic
3.33. Feature V — the verb suffix -l-
3.34. Feature V compared to other Semitic languages
3.35. Numerals
3.36. Feature VI — cardinal numbers 3-10
3.37. ‘Polarity’ — common feature to the Semitic languages
3.38. Bloch’s statement
3.39. Damascus Arabic short forms of the numerals
3.40. Moroccan Arabic short forms of the numerals
3.41. The major thesis
3.42. The Wackernagel-Meillet principle
3.43. Bisyllabic forms of the numerals occurring in isolation; Bloch’s analogy
3.44. Feature VII—/t/in the numbers 13-19
3.45. The compound nature of the numerals 13-19
3.46. Presence of emphatic /t/ — a striking feature
3.47. Feature VIII — loss of the feminine comparative
3.48. Feminine comparative
3.49. Classical Arabic feminine ‘elative’
3.50. Feature IX — adjective plural fu’al
3.51. Koine — explanation of feature IX
3.52. Feature X — nisbah suffix -iyy>*-i
3.53. Blau’s statement concerning feature X
3.54. Blau’s statement concerning tendencies of Arabic dialects
3.55. Blau’s statement concerning the subdivision problems of Semitic
3.56. Lexicographical differences between classical Arabic and the dialects
3.57. Ferguson’s statement concerning loss of various particles in classical Arabic
3.58. Problems of the reconstruction of lexical items
3.59. Feature XI — the verb ‘to bring’
3.60. On feature XI
3.61. Feature XII — the verb ‘to see’
3.62. On feature XII
3.63. Feature XIII – the relative * ?illi
3.64. Blau’s opinion concerning ?illi
3.65. Judaeo-Arabic concerning ?illi
3.66. Christian vs. Judaeo-Arabic
3.67. Relative particle ?al-
3.68. Brief comments on the phonology of the dialects
3.69. Two phonological features for the koine
3.70. Short vowels in reconstruction
3.71. Feature XIV — the merger of dad and δα?
3.72. Merging of d and δ in Middle Arabic dialects
3.73. An aspect of the general Semitic ‘drift’
3.74. Arguments in favor of general ‘drift’
3.75. Ancient dialects — Blau’s argument
3.76. Homogeneous character of Arabic dialects
3.77. Fourteen features of the koine — conclusion
Notes to Ch. 3
4. Sudanese Colloquial Arabic in the Light of the Arabic Koine
4.1 The fourteen koine features and SCA
4.2. Feature I4
4.3. Feature II5
4.4. Age and area hypothesis
4.5. SCA — descendant of an old Arabic dialect
4.6. Feature III7
4.7. Feature IV8
4.8. The Arabic koine
4.9. Feature V12
4.10. Feature VI14
4.11. The distribution of the numeral forms
4.12. Dialects in relation to the forms of cardinal numbers
4.13. SCA and its distribution of the cardinal numbers
4.14. Original state of affairs regarding cardinal numbers in SCA
4.15. Feature VII19
4.16. Feature VII19 — striking feature of the koine
4.17. Feature VIII22
4.18. Feature IX23
4.19. Feature X25
4.20. Blau’s explanation regarding feature X
4.21. Feature XI26
4.22. Feature XII27
4.23. Derivatives of the root r?y in SCA
4.24. Iraqi Arabic
4.25. Loan words from MSA in SCA
4.26. Feature XIII33
4.27. The SCA use of the definite article
4.28. Relative particle in the koine
4.29. The Middle SCA’s use of the relative particle
4.30. Feature XIV35
4.31. Gurage dialects
4.32. Leslau’s argument regarding the morphology of Gurage dialects
4.33. Argument on koine hypothesis
4.34. PCA
4.35. Arguments for and against the postulation of an Arabic koine
Notes to Ch. 4
5. Chadian Arabic in the Light of the Arabic Koine
5.1. The fourteen koine features and Chadian Arabic
5.2. Feature I4
5.3. Adjective seme ‘good’
5.4. Feature II6
5.5. Chadian Arabic — an SCA offshoot
5.6. Feature III9
5.7. Feature IV10
5.8. Peculiarity of Chadian Arabic
5.9. Another proof for the common origin of Chadian Arabic and SCA
5.10. Feature V11
5.11. Abu Absi and Sinaud on feature V
5.12. Feature VI16
5.13. African influence in Chadian Arabic
5.14. Speculation about the original state of affairs in Chadian Arabic
5.15. Problem in determining the actual facts
5.16. Feature VII18
5.17. Forms with ?
5.18. Emphasis in the numerals in Nomadic Chadian Arabic
5.19. Feature VlII19
5.20. Feature IX20
5.21. Feature X22
5.22. Feature XI23
5.23. Feature XII24
5.24. Modification of the facts regarding feature XII
5.25. Difficulty in explaining the diachronics of the situation
5.26. Feature XIII31
5.27. The Chadian Arabic use of the definite article
5.28. Feature XIV32
5.29. Conclusion — SCA and Chadian Arabic regarding the koine hypothesis
Notes to Ch. 5
Map of Chad and the Sudan
References
Index
                        

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