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TitleChap 001
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Table of Contents
                            Real World Activities
Document Text Contents
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Chapter 01 - Foundations of Information Systems in Business

• Tabulation (pre 1950s)
• Data processing (1950s-1960s)
• Management reporting (1960s-1970s)
• Decision support (1970s-1980s)
• Strategic end user support (1980s-1990s)
• Enterprise and global internetworking (1990s-2000s)
• eBusiness (2000s-2010s)
• Social networking (2010s-current)

• User authentication
• Virtual machines
• Cloud computing
• Solid state drives
• Overhaul of computing legislation
• Integration of video, audio, images, GPS, networks into entirely new products and services.
• Biometric computing
• Monitoring and control systems embedded into the human body (for example, insulin injectors, ID

10. Refer to the real world example about responsibility and accountability for project failures in the chapter.
Are these IT projects, or business projects with a significant IT component? Who should be responsible for
ensuring their success? Explain.

(the work below has some application to the answer: re-work)

IT Projects
A few projects might be considered solely IT projects. For example, a server upgrade involves only IT people.
Any resulting failure will almost always trace back to IT. Here's another way of looking at this – if I take my
car in to a garage for repairs, is it my fault if the mechanic reassembles the transmission incorrectly? My
involvement is limited only to ensuring labor hours and work time do not significantly exceed estimates.

Business Projects
In general, IT departments undertake work at the behest of business managers. Such projects require their
participation to succeed. For example, IT people aren't as likely to understand the intricacies of various office
operations and rely almost entirely on feedback from the organization's managers. Compare this with buying a
new car. It is not sufficient for a new car buyer to establish color and price requirements. For a car buyer to be
satisfied with their purchase, they must participate in product research, visit some showrooms, and test drive a
few models.

Failure is never an orphan. Failure can come from many sources.

• do not fully understand their own business processes
• overestimate the quality of legacy data
• overestimate employee's willingness to change
• accept vendor's time & cost estimates without sufficient skepticism
• fail to appreciate the risks associated with customization
• disrupt regular business with too many changes at once

• oversold
• implemented by inexperienced technologists


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Chapter 01 - Foundations of Information Systems in Business

At best, IT managers can only facilitate projects. In most cases, they do not have the all around expertise
necessary to manage a project entirely on their own. As a result, it's important for IT managers to establish
roles and responsibilities across the entire project and ensure each team member satisfactorily completes their
tasks in a timely manner. The project manager should also set checkpoints to assess progress and communicate
with key stakeholders. Ultimately, the project's sponsor must have the authority to provide the required
resources and be held accountable for a project's final outcome. IT managers and even CIO's rarely have this
level of authority.


1. Understanding the Information System
A library makes an excellent information systems model. It serves as a very large information storage facility
with text, audio, and video data archives. Look up the definitions for each term listed below and briefly explain
a library's equivalents.

Students will more easily grasp advanced concepts once they learn to think in terms of the basic information
systems structures. This exercise takes a familiar system and breaks it down into an information system's
components. This exercise makes an excellent in-class discussion topic where students can expand each other's
ideas. Consider substituting any common information system in place of a library. Alternative examples might
include video rental stores, class registrations systems, and voting systems.

a) Input
A library's inputs consist of the items it receives for its collection. These items may consist of books,
periodicals, maps, microfiche, DVDs, CDs, and many others. Inputs also consist of creating and maintaining
patron's accounts.

b) Processing
A library's main processes revolve around checking out and checking in items from its collection. Additional
processes include adding new items into the collection, purging dated, duplicate, or damaged items from the
collection, photocopying or reproducing materials, facilitating inter-library loans, sending overdue notices,
assisting patron's accounts, and repairing damaged items.

c) Output
A library's outputs consist of any information that leaves the library. This may take the form of item loans,
photocopies, and even hand-written notes.

d) Storage
A library's storage systems include shelves for books, stacks for periodicals, file drawers for microfiche, hard
drives for databases, and racks for CD's and DVD's.

e) Control
A library's control systems include periodic inventories, anti-theft devices, and security cameras.

f) Feedback
A library's feedback systems include circulation, patronage, and loss statistics. Librarians use this information
to help identify popular items, plan staffing levels, and develop strategies to reduce loss. In short, librarians use
this information to help the library run more effectively and efficiently.


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