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Universiti Teknologi MARA

Mobile Learning Application For Secondary Students
In Science Subject: A Prototype For Support And

Movement

Nurzawani Binti Md Yusof

Thesis submitted in fiilfiUment of the requirements for
Bachelor of Computer Science (Hons)

Faculty of Information Technology And
Quantitative Science

May 2007

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DECLARATION

I certify that this thesis and the research to which it refers are the product of my own

work and that any ideas or quotation from the work of other people, published or

otherwise are fully acknowledged in accordance with the standard referring practices of

the discipline

MAY 28,2007 NURZAWANIBINTIMD YUSOF

2005614833

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CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2 Literature Review

The literature review in this report is just to show the overview of the project being

undertaken and for basic information to understand and to be clear about the project.

It explains the introduction of the project, the problem description regarding current

situation, a little bit of information on the mobile learning and how it works and

lastly the conclusion.

2.1 Introduction

Computing technology has been applied to learning since decades. The use for

computing technology for learning has been observed in various ways. Since the

past decades, electronic learning or e-leaming had appeared and user used to it but

for the recent years, the rapid progress of mobile technologies a new term had

appeared that is mobile learning the new era of learning. Mobile learning is the next

generation of e-Leaming and based on mobile devices, M. Sharples(2002).

Mobile learning is a field that combines two areas that are mobile computing and e-

leaming. Mobile learning has been considered as the future of learning or as an

integral part of any other form of educational process. Mobile learning is also a

collaborative learning which according to Dillenbourg (1999) more or less any

collaborative learning activity within an educational context, such as studying

course material or sharing course assignments.

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2.2 Mobile learning

Mobile learning is an e-leaming through mobile computational device. Mobile

learning in generally is a device that is small such as PDAs or cellular phone that

enough to accompany user in every moment and can be used for some form of

learning. The device can help the user where it can allow interacting with people

through the exchange of written message. Moreover, this device can be considered

as tool for accessing content that stored in the device or reached through

interconnecting. In addition, this device can be included as accessing services that

can dynamically generated content.

According to Trifonova and Ronchetti the definition of mobile learning is mobile

device mean PDAs and digital cell phone, but more generally of any device that is

small, autonomous and unobtrusive enough to accompany user in every moment in

their every-day life and that can be used for some form of learning. The most

obvious use of the mobile devices for educational purposes is a direct application of

the e-leaming techniques on smaller devices instead on a desktop or personal

computer. A logical sequence is the development and experimentation on

transforming traditional courses in a form appropriate for mobile devices. Mobile

learning has different interface rather than other types of learning. Mobile learning

have small screen and do not have any keyboard.

2.3 Lifelong, collaborative or problem based learning

There are many researcher concerned with the different aspects of an educational

system for lifelong learning. Bentley (1998) and Fischer & Scharff (1998) are

writing about the goals that should be adapted by the educational system that favors

lifelong learning. Jones (1999) and Wilson (1999) are concerned about practical

issues of how lifelong learning should be recognized and evaluated. However

Davies (1998); Fischer (1998); Jarvis et al. (1998) and Sharpies (1999) are

discussing about the methods and models of teaching that would be most

appropriate for lifelong learning. Cunliffe (1999) are concerned with the qualities

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reliant, self-motivated and independent. The system was implemented using a

wireless ad-hoc networking environment, comprising of a teacher's notebook with a

WiFi wireless LAN card that acted as the local server, and student PDAs with

802.11 LAN cards and small-sized CCD cameras. A database of different butterfly

species in Taiwan was used with a content-based image retrieval system, and an

online nature journal system. The students visited a butterfly farm, where the

networking environment was set up and they could use their PDA cameras to take

photographs of the butterflies they observed. Using the photos, they could then

query the database, which would send back possible matches. The students could

then decide which match was best, and the database would verify based on image

content similarity. The students then made the final decision, which they recorded

on their journal together with their notes of the whole experience, and posted to the

teacher. The teacher in turn sent feedback to the students on their PDAs. In the

evaluations, a control group used a text-based butterfly guidebook and the

experimental group used the system described above. Multiple choice tests on the

key features of the butterfly species were administered before and after the trial. Six

field trips were conducted in total, with students encountering three new species and

three old species at each trip. In four out of the six field trips, the experimental

group was able to more correctly identify the key features than the control group.

The PDA uses a feature called ActiveSync to load files or additional software from

a laptop or desktop computer. Any files made for use on the PDA can be developed

on a computer and then transferred to the PDA via ActiveSync.

2.10 Conclusion

The characters of mobile learning devices are the small screen and poor input

capabilities results to the assumption that mobile learning cannot be replace the

standard desktop computer environment learning. However the same properties also

make the mobile learning efficient in learning domain. The mobile learning makes

the user used the small piece of waiting time or idle time for learning by reading the

small pieces of data, doing quizzes or using forums or chats. The mobile learning

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user will experience of studying with the help of small devices which is interesting

and attractive. The mobile learning will bring the ability to guide and support the

user in new learning situation.

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