Download EPRI Phosphat & Caustic Treatment Guidelines PDF

TitleEPRI Phosphat & Caustic Treatment Guidelines
File Size19.1 MB
Total Pages404
Table of Contents
                            1.1  THE EPRI CYCLE CHEMISTRY PROGRAM
	1.1.1Program Goals and Objectives
	1.1.2Program Philosophy
	1.1.3Key Cycle Chemistry Guidelines
	1.1.4Program Vision and Future Plans
1.2  RESEARCH SUPPORTING REVISION OF THE CYCLE CHEMISTRY GUIDELINES
	1.2.1Chemical Environment and Liquid Films in the Phase Transition Zone (PTZ)
	1.2.2Corrosion Processes in the PTZ of Steam Turbines
	1.2.3  EPRI’s New Steam Limits
	1.2.4Volatility and Solubility of Impurities in Steam
	1.2.5Copper Corrosion and Transport in Fossil Cycles
1.3  FIELD EXPERIENCE SUPPORTING REVISION OF THE PC AND CT GUIDELINES, AND INTRODUCTION TO PC AND CT
	1.3.1  Phosphate Treatments and Introduction of the Phosphate Continuum Leading to New PC Guidelines
	1.3.2  Introduction to Caustic Treatment and Operating Experiences Leading to New CT Guideline
1.4  HOW TO USE THESE GUIDELINES
1.5  REFERENCES
2.1  CHEMICALLY-INFLUENCED PROBLEMS, AND THE CONTINUUM OF TREATMENTS
2.2  SELECTION AND OPTIMIZATION OF FEEDWATER TREATMENT
	2.2.1  Introduction and Types of Feedwater Treatment
	2.2.2  All-ferrous Feedwater Systems Optimization
		Optimization of All-Ferrous Feedwater Chemistry
			Step 1—Review Normal or Current Feedwater Treatme
			Step 2—Monitoring Baseline on Current Feedwater T
			Step 3—Evaluate Reducing Agent Requirements
			Step 4—Monitoring with New Feedwater Treatment
			Steps 5 and 6—Consider Converting to OT
			Step 7—Continue to Optimize the Feedwater Treatme
			Step 8—Operation and Continuing Monitoring
	2.2.3  Mixed-Metallurgy Feedwater Systems Optimization
		Optimization of Mixed-Metallurgy Feedwater Chemistry
			Step 1—Review of Water Chemistry, Operation, and
			Step 2—Baseline Monitoring
			Step 3—Water Chemistry Optimization
			Step 4—Design and Material Changes
			Step 5—Operation
			Step 6—Monitoring to Compare with Baseline Data
			Step 7—Normal Operation and Monitoring
			Step 8—Continual Check of Chemistry
			Step 9—Longterm Plans
2.3  SELECTION AND OPTIMIZATION OF DRUM BOILER WATER TREATMENT
	
		
			Step 1—Review Normal or Current Treatment
			Step 2—Continue Use of Current Treatment
			Step 3—Base-Line Monitoring on Current Chemistry
			Step 4—Initial Evaluation of Boiler Water Treatme
			Step 5—Consider Changing to PC\(L\), AVT or CT
			Step 6—Is There a Condensate Polisher in the Unit
			Step 7—Convert to AVT or OT
			Step 8—Boiler Chemical Clean
			Step 10—Need to Determine the Likelihood and Freq
			Steps 11, 13 and 15—Convert to PC\(L\), PC\(H
			Steps 9, 12, 14, and 16—Develop Specific Unit Che
			Steps 17 to 19—Monitor to Compare with Baseline M
			Step 20—Normal Operation
2.4  REFERENCES
3.1  INTRODUCTION
3.2  BACKGROUND DERIVATION PHILOSOPHY FOR PREVIOUS EPRI GUIDELINES
	3.2.1  Illustration and Examples of Boiler Water Limits from Previous EPRI Guidelines
		Total Carryover
		Illustration
3.3  BACKGROUND TO OVERALL DERIVATION OF PHILOSOPHY FOR PHOSPHATE CONTINUUM AND CAUSTIC TREATMENT GUIDELINES
	3.3.1  Derivation of Philosophy for Steam and Boi
		Phosphate Continuum at Low Phosphate Levels (PC(L)) (< 3 ppm)
		Phosphate Continuum at High Phosphate Levels (> 3 ppm) (PC(H))
		Caustic Treatment (CT)
		Summary Discussion of Derivation Process for Control Curves for PC and CT
3.4  RATIONALE FOR SAMPLE POINTS
	3.4.1  Reheat Steam/Superheated Steam
	3.4.2  Saturated Steam
	3.4.3  Boiler Water
	3.4.4  Economizer Inlet and Attemperation Water
	3.4.5  Deaerator Outlet
	3.4.6  Deaerator Inlet
	3.4.7  Condensate Polisher Effluent (if Applicable)
	3.4.8  Condensate Pump Discharge
	3.4.9  Condenser Leak Detection Trays and/or Hotwell Zones (if Applicable)
	3.4.10  Air Removal System Exhaust
	3.4.11  Condensate Storage Tank Effluent
	3.4.12  Makeup Treatment System Effluent
3.5  TROUBLESHOOTING, COMMISSIONING AND CORE PARAMETERS
3.6  RATIONALE FOR ACTION LEVELS
3.7  RATIONALE FOR TARGET VALUES
	3.7.1  Steam and Boiler Water
	3.7.2  Feedwater and Condensate
3.8  RATIONALE FOR TARGET VALUES OF INDIVIDUAL PARAMETERS
	3.8.1  Sodium
		Sodium Target Value in Superheated (Reheat/Main) and Saturated Steam
		Sodium Target Value in Boiler Water
		Sodium Target Value in Condensate and Makeup Water
		Sodium Target Value in Condensate Storage Tank Effluent (Aluminum Tanks Only)
	3.8.2  Phosphate Target in Boiler Water
	3.8.3  Chloride
		Chloride Target Value in Steam
		Chloride Target Value in Boiler Water
		Chloride Target Value in Makeup Water
	3.8.4  Sulfate
		Sulfate Target Value in Steam
		Sulfate Target Value in Boiler Water
		Sulfate Target Value in Makeup Water
	3.8.5  Silica
		Silica Target Value in Steam
		Silica Target Value in Boiler Water
		Silica Target Value in Condensate and Makeup Water
	3.8.6  Dissolved Oxygen
		Dissolved Oxygen Target Value in Economizer Inlet
		Dissolved Oxygen Target Value in Drum Boiler Water
		Dissolved Oxygen Target Value at Deaerator Outlet
		Dissolved Oxygen Target Value at Condensate Pump Discharge
	3.8.7  Oxidizing-Reducing Potential (ORP)
	3.8.8  Reducing Agents (Hydrazine or Alternates)
	3.8.9 pH
		pH Control
		pH Target Values in Boiler Water
		pH Target Values in Feedwater
	3.8.10  Ammonia
		Ammonia Target Values at the Economizer Inlet
		Monitoring Ammonia in Boiler Water
	3.8.11  Specific Conductivity
		Specific Conductivity Target Values at Economizer Inlet
		Specific Conductivity in Boiler Water
		Specific Conductivity Target Values in Makeup Water
	3.8.12  Cation Conductivity
		Cation Conductivity Target Values at Economizer Inlet
		Cation Conductivity in Boiler Water
		Cation Conductivity Limit in Steam
	3.8.13  Total Organic Carbon (TOC)
		Steam, Condensate, and Makeup TOC Target Values
	3.8.14  Iron and Copper
		Total Iron and Copper Limits
		Monitoring Considerations
	3.8.15  Air In-leakage
		Air In-leakage Limit
3.9  GUIDELINES CUSTOMIZATION AND OPTIMIZATION
3.10  REFERENCES
4.1  INTRODUCTION TO PC
4.2  GUIDANCE AND GUIDELINES FOR PC(L)
	4.2.1  Introduction to PC(L)
	4.2.2  Target Values for PC(L)
	4.2.3  Normal Operation for PC(L)
		Continual Check of pH and Phosphate Level
	4.2.4  Operation During Upset Conditions
	4.2.5  Unit Startup and Shutdown
		Cold Startup
		Unit Trip with Normal Contaminant Concentrations
		Unit Shutdown
4.3  GUIDANCE AND GUIDELINES FOR PC(H)
	4.3.1  Target Values for PC(H)
	4.3.2  Normal Operation for PC(H)
		Phosphate Hideout and Its Control
		Reaction to Contaminants in Boiler Cycle
		Startup and Shutdown Operation
			Cold Start
			Transition to Normal Operation
		Hot Startup and the Impact of Hideout
		Feedwater and Makeup Control
		Condenser Leakage
		Chemical Feeds—Mixed-Metallurgy Cycles
		Chemical Feeds—All-Ferrous Systems
		Monitoring and Corrective Actions
4.4  REFERENCES
5.1  CAUSTIC TREATMENT GUIDANCE
5.2  GUIDANCE AND GUIDELINES FOR CAUSTIC TREATMENT (CT)
	5.2.1  Target Values for CT
	5.2.2  Target Values for Plants Without Reheat
5.3  NORMAL OPERATION FOR DRUM BOILERS ON CAUSTIC TREATMENT
	5.3.1  Cycle Makeup
	5.3.2  Condenser Leakage
	5.3.3  Chemical Feeds – Feedwater – Mixed-Metallu
	5.3.4  Chemical Feeds – Feedwater - All-Ferrous S
	5.3.5  Chemical Feeds – Boiler Water
	5.3.6  Monitoring and Corrective Actions
5.4  APPROACHES TO DEVELOPING OPTIMUM CAUSTIC TREATMENT
5.5  REFFERENCES
6.1  CHEMISTRY CONTROL
6.2  CORRECTIVE ACTIONS
6.3  INFLUENCE OF TREATMENT CHEMICAL PURITY ON CYCLE CHEMISTRY
	
		
			
				
A.5  References
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Cycle Chemistry Guidelines for Fossil
Plants: Phosphate Continuum and Caustic
Treatment

Technical Report

L
I

C
E

N
S E D

M A T
E

R
I

A
L

Similer Documents