Download FMDS0540 - Fire Alarm Systems PDF

TitleFMDS0540 - Fire Alarm Systems
File Size474.7 KB
Total Pages26
Table of Contents
                            CD:Electrical Section
1.0 SCOPE
	1.1 Changes
	1.2 Superseded Information
2.0 LOSS PREVENTION RECOMMENDATIONS
	2.1 Introduction
	2.2 Installation and Operation Recommendations
	2.3 Power Supply
	2.4 Testing and Maintenance Recommendations
3.0 SUPPORT FOR RECOMMENDATIONS
	3.1 General Information
	3.2 Loss History
4.0 REFERENCES
	4.1 FM Global
	4.2 National and International Standards
APPENDIX A GLOSSARY OF TERMS
APPENDIX B DOCUMENT REVISION HISTORY
APPENDIX C FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS BACKGROUND
	C.1 Basic Architecture
	C.2 Control Unit (Conventional vs. Addressable/Intelligent)
	C.3 Initiating Device Circuits (IDC) or Addressable Signaling Line Circuits (SLC).
	C.4 Fire Alarm System Wiring and Installation
	C.5 Fire Alarm System Monitoring and Supervision
	C.6 Storage Batteries and Battery Calculations
		C.6.1 Battery Sizing
		C.6.2 Battery Charger Sizing
	C.7 Alarm Verification, Cross Zoning, and Advanced Detector Technologies
	C.8 Supervising Station Fire Alarm Systems
	C.9 Central Station Systems
	C.10 Proprietary Supervising Station System
		C.10.1 Classification of Proprietary Systems
		C.10.2 Operators and Runners
		C.10.3 Guard’s Tour Supervisory Service
		C.10.4 Remote Supervising Station Fire Alarm System
		C.10.5 Auxiliary Fire Alarm System
APPENDIX D BIBLIOGRAPHY
Fig 1. Fire alarm control systems and equipment
Fig 2. Monitoring and central station facilities
Fig 3. Typical fire alarm control system
Fig 4. Addressable/Intelligent Fire Alarm Control connected to circuit interface modules and initiating, indicating, and signaling devices
Fig 5. Initiating device wiring connections
Fig 6. Typical central station system
Fig 7. A local energy auxiliary fire alarm system
Fig 8. A shunt-type auxiliary fire alarm system
Table 1. Performance Checklist for New or Modified Fire Alarm System Installations
Table 2. Fire Alarm System Testing Schedule
Table 3. Battery Charger Derating Factors
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

September 2007
Page 1 of 26

FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS

Table of Contents
Page

1.0 SCOPE .................................................................................................................................................... 3
1.1 Changes ........................................................................................................................................... 3
1.2 Superseded Information ................................................................................................................... 3

2.0 LOSS PREVENTION RECOMMENDATIONS ........................................................................................ 3
2.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................... 3
2.2 Installation and Operation Recommendations ................................................................................. 4
2.3 Power Supply ................................................................................................................................... 6
2.4 Testing and Maintenance Recommendations ................................................................................... 7

3.0 SUPPORT FOR RECOMMENDATIONS ................................................................................................ 9
3.1 General Information .......................................................................................................................... 9
3.2 Loss History ...................................................................................................................................... 9

4.0 REFERENCES ....................................................................................................................................... 10
4.1 FM Global ....................................................................................................................................... 10
4.2 National and International Standards .............................................................................................. 10

APPENDIX A GLOSSARY OF TERMS ....................................................................................................... 10
APPENDIX B DOCUMENT REVISION HISTORY ...................................................................................... 13
APPENDIX C FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS BACKGROUND ........................................................................... 13

C.1 Basic Architecture .......................................................................................................................... 13
C.2 Control Unit (Conventional vs. Addressable/Intelligent) ................................................................ 13
C.3 Initiating Device Circuits (IDC) or Addressable Signaling Line Circuits (SLC). ............................ 14
C.4 Fire Alarm System Wiring and Installation .................................................................................... 15
C.5 Fire Alarm System Monitoring and Supervision ............................................................................. 16
C.6 Storage Batteries and Battery Calculations ................................................................................... 17

C.6.1 Battery Sizing ....................................................................................................................... 18
C.6.2 Battery Charger Sizing .......................................................................................................... 18

C.7 Alarm Verification, Cross Zoning, and Advanced Detector Technologies ...................................... 19
C.8 Supervising Station Fire Alarm Systems ........................................................................................ 19
C.9 Central Station Systems ................................................................................................................ 21
C.10 Proprietary Supervising Station System ...................................................................................... 22

C.10.1 Classification of Proprietary Systems ................................................................................ 23
C.10.2 Operators and Runners ..................................................................................................... 23
C.10.3 Guard’s Tour Supervisory Service ...................................................................................... 24
C.10.4 Remote Supervising Station Fire Alarm System ............................................................... 24
C.10.5 Auxiliary Fire Alarm System ............................................................................................... 25

APPENDIX D BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................................................................................................. 25

List of Figures
Fig 1. Fire alarm control systems and equipment ......................................................................................... 3
Fig 2. Monitoring and central station facilities ............................................................................................... 4
Fig 3. Typical fire alarm control system ......................................................................................................... 5
Fig 4. Addressable/Intelligent Fire Alarm Control connected to circuit interface modules and

initiating, indicating, and signaling devices ....................................................................................... 16
Fig 5. Initiating device wiring connections ................................................................................................... 17
Fig 6. Typical central station system ........................................................................................................... 23

FM Global
Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets 5-40

©2007 Factory Mutual Insurance Company. All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced,
stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in whole or in part, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without written permission of Factory Mutual Insurance Company.

Page 2

Fig 7. A local energy auxiliary fire alarm system ......................................................................................... 26
Fig 8. A shunt-type auxiliary fire alarm system ........................................................................................... 26

List of Tables
Table 1. Performance Checklist for New or Modified Fire Alarm System Installations .................................. 4
Table 2. Fire Alarm System Testing Schedule ............................................................................................... 8
Table 3. Battery Charger Derating Factors ................................................................................................... 19

5-40 Fire Alarm Systems
Page 2 FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets

©2007 Factory Mutual Insurance Company. All rights reserved.

Page 14

detectors, etc.; and one or more notification appliance circuits (NACs) wired to audible or visual notification
appliances to alert personnel. Systems may be combined with other functions (such as paging, intrusion
detection, building management) provided (1) the alternate system function(s) do not interfere with the
supervision or operation of the fire alarm portion of the system and (2) the entire system has been FM
Approved for fire alarm use.

It is important to note that for conventional (non-addressable) control panels, any FM Approved, four-wire,
electrically compatible device may be connected. In addition, a two-wire initiating device can also be
connected to activate an alarm as long as it has been tested and FM Approved for use with that particular
control.

Addressable/intelligent control systems differ from their conventional counterparts in that they communicate
more information from an initiating device to the control panel than a simple alarm. In an addressable/
intelligent system, the signaling and initiating devices continually report the output of their detecting circuitry
over the signaling line circuit (SLC). The decision to alarm is made at the control panel rather than at the
device. These systems are commonly referred to as analog-addressable or intelligent. An advantage with this
type of system is that the control panel continually monitors the sensor’s output to check its status. The
information is sent back and forth to relay conditions at that particular location with a specific address. The
signaling pathway between control and devices can be wires, optical fibers, or radio waves. An important
advantage to addressable/intelligent systems is that a system can be designed using many different types
of input and output devices as long as they have been tested and are compatible with the control. The amount
of wiring can also be reduced by using the same signaling circuit for both inputs and outputs. Control action
commands to output devices can also be sent at very high speeds.

It is important to note that in addition to addressable/intelligent sensors, simple two or four-wire detection
devices may be connected to an addressable/intelligent control, provided that an FM Approved and
compatible circuit interface module is used to connect the devices back to the control. For addressable/
intelligent control panels, product performance standards require that any connected initiating, notification,
and signaling devices be specifically tested and FM Approved with that control thereby assuring that they are
compatible due to the individual communication protocol of that system. Addressable/intelligent controls have
the ability to monitor signals from both conventional devices and intelligent/addressable ones.

Circuit interfaces send out signals to each conventional initiating device to check its status and then report
to the central control unit. Part of the information sent from an initiating device is its address. Other information
that can be sent is whether there is an alarm, a trouble signal, a detector status signal (e.g., detector dirty)
and the type of device, such as smoke detector. For an example of a typical system configuration, see
Figure 4.

C.3 Initiating Device Circuits (IDC) or Addressable Signaling Line Circuits (SLC).

An initiating device circuit is a circuit to which automatic or manual signal initiating devices are connected
either directly to the fire alarm control or to a circuit interface module. The initiating device circuit does not
identify the address of the individual device operated but may identify the operating zone and type of device.
Two or four-wire physical connections provide operating voltage and supervision for input devices on initiating
device circuits.

A Signaling Line Circuit is a circuit or a path between any combination of circuit interfaces, sensors, control
units, or transmitters over which multiple system input signals or output signals, or both, are carried. The
signaling line circuit interface module is a system component that connects a signaling line circuit to any
combination of initiating devices, initiating device circuits, notification appliances, notification appliance
circuits, system control outputs, and other signaling line circuits.

Initiating device circuits and signaling line circuits may be connected to operate any of the following:

1. Manual fire alarm box

2. Automatic fire detection like smoke, heat, flame, etc.

3. Sprinkler waterflow detection

4. Control valves

5. Dry pipe air pressure supervision

6. Pressure supervision for pressurized water storage tanks

5-40 Fire Alarm Systems
Page 14 FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets

©2007 Factory Mutual Insurance Company. All rights reserved.

Page 25

receives alarm signals directly is not willing to accept supervisory signals because of the fear of confusion.
Supervisory signals are thus best handled by a commercial organization qualified to recognize the signal
and take appropriate action.

Experience shows the failure rate of equipment in remote station systems is high, due to many incidents of
inadequate maintenance.

C.10.5 Auxiliary Fire Alarm System

An auxiliary protective signaling system can be used to provide services such as:

• Manual fire alarm boxes

• Sprinkler systems waterflow alarm service

• Automatic fire detection (not with a shunt system)

An auxiliary connection can be made for all protected premises systems where the equipment is FM Approved
for this connection.

Alarms from an auxiliary system are transmitted to municipal alarm headquarters. The alarms are received
on the same equipment, using the same alerting methods as those transmitted from fire alarm boxes on
the streets. The auxiliary system comprises equipment and circuits in the protected premises which are
insufficient, in themselves, to notify the fire service.

A municipal fire alarm system consists of signaling equipment whose purpose is to receive fire alarms or
other emergency calls from the public and to transmit these alarms or emergency calls to the public fire service
communications center and other interested agencies. The municipality controls the installation, use,
maintenance of the system and alarm retransmission, if necessary. Equipment is usually provided to identify
and automatically record each signal.

Alarm transmission of municipal systems may be accomplished by telegraph circuits (coded wired), or coded
radio.

Two basic types of auxiliary signaling systems are allowed today:

1. The local energy type system, the most common type, is electrically isolated from the municipal system
and has its own power supply. Tripping the municipal transmitter by the auxiliary system does not depend upon
the current in the municipal circuit. The ability to transmit alarms if a municipal circuit opens depends on
the transmitting device and the alarm headquarters’ equipment. (See Fig. 7.)

2. The shunt type system is much less common and is electrically connected to, and an integral part of, the
municipal system. A ground fault on the auxiliary system is a ground fault on the municipal system. An open
circuit on the auxiliary system will transmit a false alarm to the fire department. (See Fig. 8.)

An open circuit in the transmitter trip coil will not be indicated at the protected property or fire department
headquarters. If a signaling device operates, an alarm will not be transmitted, but an open circuit indication
will occur at the fire department. If the municipal circuit is open when the shunt type system operated, the
transmitter will not trip until the municipal circuit returns to normal. This system is no longer allowed by many
AHJs, and can only be used if there is no more than one waterflow transmitter at a protected premise.

Certain variations allow an auxiliary connection to all types of public systems. Some more advanced coded
radio systems combine a basic protected premises fire alarm control unit with the municipal system coded
radio transmitter.

Auxiliary systems are used only in connection with a municipal system suitable for the service. The operation
of the auxiliary system, including its circuits, instruments and devices, is controlled by the municipality starting
from the transmitter at the protected premises.

APPENDIX D BIBLIOGRAPHY

ANSI/NFPA 72 National Fire Alarm Code, 2006, National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, MA

National Fire Alarm Code Handbook, 2006, National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, MA

Planning and Installation for Automatic Fire Detection and Fire Alarm Systems, 2003; European Property
Insurance Committee, Paris, France

Fire Alarm Systems 5-40
FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets Page 25

©2007 Factory Mutual Insurance Company. All rights reserved.

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