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Table of Contents
                            ABSTRACT
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF FIGURES AND DIAGRAMS
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
CHAPTER 1.  MEDIATION IN TODAY’S SOCIETY
1.1. INTRODUCTION
1.2.  PROBLEMS WITH THE CURRENT LEGAL SYSTEM
1.3.  NATURE AND PRACTICE OF MEDIATION
1.3.1. What is Mediation
1.3.2. Voluntary or Compulsory
1.3.3. Mediation vs Justice
1.4.  THE ROLE OF A MEDIATOR
1.4.1. The Different Roles of a Mediator
1.4.2. Attributes of a Good Mediator
1.5.  CHOOSING A MEDIATOR
1.6.  TRAINING TO BECOME A MEDIATOR
1.7.  ACCREDITATION OF MEDIATORS
1.7.1.  The Importance of Accreditation and Training of Mediators
1.7.2. Practicability of the top-down approach versus the practicability of the bottom up approach when trying to formulate standards for mediation
1.7.3. An Umbrella Body or A Standardised System of Accreditation?
	Based on this, the following chapters will look into some civil and common law jurisdictions to ascertain for the reader whether these jurisdictions have any sights of implementing a national accreditation system for mediators which eventually can lea...
1.8.  THE RATIONALE AND JUSTIFICATION OF THE VARIOUS JURISDICTIONS COVERED
	The thesis presents jurisdictions from important legal cultures in which some are more mature in the adoption of mediation whereas others are gradually embracing mediation. The thesis hopes to contrast the differences between advance adoption in some ...
	Although it is not possible to cover all jurisdictions, nevertheless the jurisdictions chosen do give the reader some sense of the scope and extent to which some jurisdictions have aligned their legal frameworks to embrace mediation     thus enabling ...
CHAPTER 2.  AUSTRALIA
2.1. DEVELOPMENT OF MEDIATION IN AUSTRALIA
2.1.1. Introduction
2.1.2. Mediation in Australia
2.1.3. Growth of international mediation
2.1.4. The institutionalisation of mediation
2.1.5. Evidence of increasing use of ADR processes within the litigation system
2.1.6. The professional requirement of mediators
2.1.7. Legislation on mediation
2.1.8. Mediation Act 1997
2.2.  ACCREDITATION
2.2.1. Introduction to accreditation
2.2.2. Defining ‘Accreditation’
2.2.3. The road to NMAS
2.2.4. Approval Standards
2.2.5. The benefit of NMAS
2.2.6. Self-regulated accreditation systems
2.2.7. Always room for improvement
2.3.  MEDIATION TRAINING
2.3.1. Introduction to mediation training
2.3.2. Training and education of mediation at University
2.3.3. Certificate IV of Mediation
2.3.4. A mediator’s technique and role
2.3.5. Problems associated with training mediators
2.3.6. Training Conclusion
2.4.  MEDIATION ETHICS AND RESPONSIBILITY
2.4.1. NADRAC on Codes of Conduct
2.4.2. Mediator competency, knowledge and skills
2.4.3. Ethical standards for mediation
2.4.4. Avoiding conflict of interests
2.4.5. Confidentiality
2.4.6. Confidentiality and privacy
2.4.7. Breach of confidence and mediator liability
2.4.8. Unresolved ethical issues
2.5.  THE WAY FORWARD
CHAPTER 3. NEW ZEALAND
3.1. INTRODUCTION: DISPUTE RESOLUTIONS INSIDE AND OUTSIDE THE COURTROOM IN NEW ZEALAND
3.2.  AN OVERVIEW OF THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK AND APPLICATION OF MEDIATION IN NEW ZEALAND
3.3.  TRAINING OF MEDIATORS
3.4.  ACCREDITATION OF MEDIATORS
3.5.  CODE OF ETHICS FOR MEDIATORS
3.6.  PROFESSIONAL NEGLIGENCE WITHIN MEDIATION
3.7.  THE NEED FOR A UNIFIED MEDIATION LAW
3.8.   CONCLUSION
CHAPTER 4. INDONESIA
4.1. INTRODUCTION
4.2.  MEDIATION IN INDONESIA
4.3.  A REVIEW OF LITERATURE ON MEDIATOR TRAINING
4.4.  HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF MEDIATOR CREDENTIALING
4.5.  MEDIATION TRAINING IN INDONESIA
4.6. MEDIATOR CREDENTIALING IN INDONESIA
4.7.  CHALLENGES OF MEDIATION TRAINING
4.8.  CONCLUSION
CHAPTER 5. MALAYSIA
5.1. ATTITUDES TOWARDS MEDIATION
5.2.  PRACTICE DIRECTION NO.5 OF 2010 ON MEDIATION
5.2.1. Option A (Judge-led Mediation)
5.2.2. Option B (Mediation by any other Mediator)
5.3.  MEDIATION ACT 2012
5.4.  ACCREDITATION OF MEDIATORS
5.5.  MEDIATION TRAINING
5.6.  CODE OF CONDUCT IN MEDIATION
5.7.  DISCUSSION
5.8. CONCLUSION
CHAPTER 6.   INDIA
6.1. INTRODUCTION
6.2.  TRACING THE ORIGINS OF MEDIATION IN INDIA
6.2.1. Panchayat
6.2.2. Lok Adalat
6.3.  LEGAL FRAMEWORKS SUPPORTING ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION
6.3.1. Arbitration and Conciliation Act
6.3.2. Legal Services Authorities Act
6.3.3. Code of Civil Procedure 1908
6.4.  THE RISE OF MEDIATION IN INDIA
6.5.  TRAINING OF INDIAN MEDIATORS
6.5.1. Required Topics to be Covered in Training
6.5.2. Private v Court Ordered Mediation
6.6. INDIAN INSTITUTE OF ARBITRATION AND MEDIATION
6.6.1. Background
6.6.2. International Training Programme – 5-7 days/ 40-50 hours
6.6.3. Mediation Training Programme – 5 days / 40 hours
6.6.4. Certificate in Dispute Management (CDM) – Distance Education Programme (6 months/15 hours)
6.7.  IIAM CERTIFICATION & ACCREDITATION SYSTEM
6.7.1. Grade C Mediators
6.7.2. Qualifying Assessment Programme (QAP-1)
6.7.3. Grade B Mediators
6.7.4. Qualifying Assessment Programme (QAP-2)
6.7.5. Grade A Mediators
6.7.6. Qualifying Assessment Programme (QAP-3)
6.8.  PROCEDURES IN PLACE PROVIDING FOR CONSISTENT QAP  EVALUATIONS
6.9.  GUIDELINES PROVIDED TO ASSESSORS FOR QAP  EVALUATIONS
6.10.  IIAM’S MEDIATORS’ CODE OF PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT
6.10.1. Mediator Appointment
6.10.2. Diligence, Independence, Neutrality, Impartiality
6.10.3. Conflict of Interest
6.10.4. Mediation Process
6.10.5. Termination of the Process
6.10.6. Feedback
6.10.7. Fees
6.10.8. Confidentiality
6.10.9. Professional Conduct Issues and Complaints
6.11.  CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
6.11.1. Meta-Culture
6.12.  MEDIATION TRAINING MANUAL OF INDIA
6.12.1. Nature of Conflicts
6.12.2. Concepts of Mediation
6.12.3. Comparison between Judicial Processes
6.12.4. Process of Mediation
6.12.5. Qualities of a Mediators
6.12.6. Communication Skills
6.12.7. Negotiation and Bargaining Skills
6.12.8. Impasses
6.13.  CONCLUDING REMARKS
CHAPTER 7.   HONG KONG
7.1. DEVELOPMENT OF MEDIATION IN HONG KONG
7.2.  INTRODUCTION TO PRACTICE DIRECTION 31
7.3. HONG KONG MEDIATION ACCREDITATION ASSOCIATION  LIMITED
7.4.  HONG KONG INTERNATIONAL ARBITRATION CENTRE
7.5. MEDIATOR’S ACCREDITATION
7.6. CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
7.7. MEDIATOR’S CODE
7.8.  MEDIATOR’S RESPONSIBILITIES
7.9.  MEDIATION SETTLEMENT
7.10.  VOLUNTARINESS IN MEDIATION
7.11.  CONFIDENTIALITY
7.12.  FAIRNESS AND ACCOUNTABILITY
7.13.  CONCLUSION
CHAPTER 8.  CALIFORNIA
8.1. INTRODUCTION
8.2.  CURRENT TRAINING AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT  REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL MEDIATORS IN  CALIFORNIA
8.2.1. Absence of formal training or accreditation
8.2.2. Mediators are held to a standard of ethics
8.2.3. Mediators are held to confidentiality standards
8.2.4. An official training and accreditation system in the Legislator’s drawer?
8.3.  AN ASSESSMENT OF THE EXISTING LIBERAL APPROACH
8.3.1. ‘If Rembrandt had set the standard, Picasso would not have met it’867F
8.3.2. What are the skills of a competent mediator? Can they be effectively taught and assessed?
8.4.  A FLEXIBLE NATIONAL SYSTEM FOR TRAINING AND  ACCREDITATION WOULD BE BEST
8.4.1. Consumer protection
8.5.  CONCLUSION
CHAPTER 9.  CANADA
9.1. INTRODUCTION
9.2.  LITERATURE REVIEW
9.3.  THE ACCREDITATION REGIME
9.3.1. Accrediting body
9.3.2. Membership
9.3.3. Education
9.3.4. Practical Experience
9.3.5. Skills assessment
9.3.6. The Accreditation Process
9.3.7. Continuing Professional Development
9.3.8. Regulatory codes and rules
9.4.  TRAINING OF COMMERCIAL MEDIATORS
9.5.  EVALUATIONS
9.5.1. At a macro level - How far has Canada gone for the accreditation and training of commercial mediators?
9.5.2. At a micro level - given the absence of other nationally recognised accrediting bodies, how is the accreditation and training regime of ADR Canada accomplished?
9.6.  CONCLUSION
CHAPTER 10.  IS THE TIME RIGHT TO BEGIN REGULATING    MEDIATORS?
10.1. INTRODUCTION
10.2.  A QUESTION ARISES
10.3.  ACHIEVING DESIRED OUTCOMES
10.4.  ETHICAL REASONS
10.5. REPUTATION OF MEDIATION
10.6.  ARGUMENTS FOR REGULATION
10.7. ARGUMENT AGAINST REGULATION
10.8.  AUTHOR’S ANALYSIS AND POINT OF VIEW
10.9.  ESTABLISHING AN ACCREDITATION STANDARD
10.10.  COMPETENCE
10.11.  WAY FORWARD
ANNEX A
BIBLIOGRAPHY
                        

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