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TitleInterventional Cardiac Electrophysiology : A Multidisciplinary Approach. Section 1, Technology and Therapeutic Techniques
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Table of Contents
                            Cover
Title Page
Copyright
Dedication
Contents
Contributors
Preface
Abbreviations
Section 1: Technology and Therapeutic Techniques
	Section 1A: Electrophysiologic Techniques
		Chapter 1: Fundamental Aspects of EP Procedures
			Introduction
			Informed Consent
			History
			External Defibrillators
			Sedation
			Vascular Access
			Radiation
			Imaging
			Recordings
			Catheters
			Elements of a Comprehensive Electrophysiology Study
			Provocative Drug Testing
			Complications
			Conclusion
			References
		Chapter 2: Electrocardiography for the Invasive EP
			Introduction
			Outflow Tract Ventricular Tachycardia
			Fascicular Ventricular Tachycardia
			Ventricular Tachycardia with Structural Heart Disease
			Sinus Tachycardia and Automatic Atrial Tachycardia
			Wolff–Parkinson–White Syndrome
			Atrioventricular Nodal ReentryTachycardia
			Atrial Flutter
			Repolarization Abnormalities
			Miscellaneous Arrhythmia Patterns
			Conclusion
			References
		Chapter 3: Complex Catheter Recording and Mapping Techniques in the EP Lab
			Introduction
			Catheter Rigs Used for Complex Mapping
			Recording Systems and Techniques
			Supraventricular Tachycardia
			Ventricular Tachycardia
			Conclusion
			References
		Chapter 4: Advances in Electroanatomic Mapping Systems
			Introduction
			CARTO
			EnSite Velocity Cardiac Mapping System
			Radiation Safety
			References
			Video Legends
		Chapter 5: Intraoperative Mapping for the Surgeon and EP
			Introduction
			Mapping
			Preparation for Intraoperative Mapping
			Atrioventricular Bypass Tracts: Wolff–Parkinson–White and Variants
			Ventricular Tachycardia
			Atrial Tachycardias
			Macroreentrant Atrial Tachycardias
			Atrial Fibrillation
			Identifying the Normal Atrioventricular Conduction System
			Limitations of Intraoperative Mapping
			Conclusion
			References
		Chapter 6: Special Consideratins for Pediatric Electrophysiological Procedures
			Introduction
			Developmental and Psychosocial Considerations
			Laboratory Setting
			Sedation/Anesthesia Considerations
			Diagnoses and Natural History
			Indications and Complications
			Access
			Equipment
			Biophysical Issues
			Conclusion
			References
	Section 1B: Imaging Technology
		Chapter 7: Fundamentals and Applications of Echocardiographic Methods and Systems in the EP Laboratory
			Introduction
			Catheter Ablation for Arrhythmias
			Why Is There a Need for Echocardiography in the EP Lab?
			Intracardiac Echocardiography
			Echocardiography in Atrial Fibrillation
			Assessment of Left Atrial Size and Function by Echocardiography
			Assessment of Left Atrial Function
			Use of Intracardiac Echocardiography in Atrial Fibrillation Ablation
			Intracardiac Echocardiography for Ablation of Atrial Flutter
			Real-Time 3D Transesophageal Echocardiography for Arrhythmias
			Echocardiography in VentricularArrhythmia
			Echocardiography for Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy
			Conclusion
			References
			Video Legends
		Chapter 8: The Role of 3D Transthoracic and Transesophageal Echocardiography in Interventional EP
			Introduction
			Atrial Appendage
			Cardiomyopathies: Indications for ICD .0and/or CRT
			Pericardial Effusions
			Conclusions
			References
			Video Legends
		Chapter 9: Intracardiac Echocardiography
			Introduction
			Currently Available ICE Technologies
			Baseline Image Acquisition Using ICE
			Use of ICE to Guide Electrophysiology Procedures
			Use of ICE During Catheter Ablation
			Three-Dimensional Imaging with ICE
			Conclusion
			References
			Video Legends
		Chapter 10: Radiological Principles of Cardiac CT and MRI and Fusion Imaging
			Introduction
			Computed Tomography Imaging Fundamentals and Technical Considerations
			Magnetic Resonance Imaging Fundamentals and Technical Considerations
			Integrating Cardiac Computed Tomography/Magnetic Resonance Images with 3D Mapping Systems
			Clinical Applications for Image Fusion Using Computed Tomography/Magnetic Resonance Imaging and 3D Maps
			Other Imaging Modalities Used for Image Fusion with 3D Mapping Systems
			Future Applications for Image Fusion:Real-Time MRI-Guided Electrophysiology Procedures, Atrial Fibrosis, and Assessment of Ablation Lesions
			Conclusions
			References
			Video Legends
		Chapter 11: Cardiac Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Image Interpretation During Interventional Procedures
			Introduction
			Basics of Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging
			Advantages of Each Modality in the Electrophysiology Setting
			Cardiac MRI in the Setting of Implanted Cardiac Devices
			Imaging the Arrhythmia Substrate
			Conclusion
			References
			Video Legends
		Chapter 12: Hybrid Operating Rooms
			Concept
			Hybrid Procedures
			Hybrid Room Design
			Radiation Measures
			Operating Table
			Imaging
			Wireless Technologies
			Equipment
			Personnel
			Management
			Outcomes
			Cost
			Education
			Illustrative Example of a Hybrid Procedure: Atrial Fibrillation
			Periprocedural Evaluation and Care
			Conclusion
			References
	Section 1C: Device Technology
		Chapter 13: New Developments in Lead and Introducer Systems
			Introduction
			Overview of ICD Lead Developments
			Overview of Left Ventricular Leads
			Advances in Lead Delivery Systems
			Advances in LV Pacing
			Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Patients with Cardiac Implantable Electronic Devices
			Conclusions
			References
		Chapter 14: New Innovations in Implantable Pulse Generators and Heart Failure Devices
			New Developments and Trends in DeviceTherapy of Cardiac Arrhythmias
			Limitations of Current Devices
			Battery Technology
			Lead Technology
			Endocardial Leads
			Programming and Physiologic Stimulation
			Cardiac Stimulation During the Refractory Period
			Monitoring Devices/ Remote Follow-Up
			Problems of Electromechanic Interference
			Acknowledgments
			References
		Chapter 15: Implantable and Remote Monitoring
			Introduction
			Remote Monitoring Systems
			Review of Major Studies on Remote Monitoring
			Legal Considerations
			Reimbursement Considerations
			Future Directions
			References
		Chapter 16: Percutaneous Left Atrial Appendage Occlusion
			Introduction
			Indications
			Devices and Implantation Techniques
			Safety and Results
			Imaging
			Summary
			References
			Video Legends
		Chapter 17: Principles and Techniques for Lead Extraction and Device System Revision for the Surgeon and Interventionalist
			History
			Lead–Body Interaction
			Lead Management
			Definitions
			Training
			Indications
			TLE Techniques and Tools
			Conclusions
			References
			Video Legends
	Section 1D: Ablation Technology
		Chapter 18: Anatomy and Histopathology of Ablation Interventions
			Introduction
			Relationship of the Heart to theThoracic Structures
			Relationships of the Cardiac Chambers
			The Atria, Septum, Conduction System,and  Atrioventricular Junctions
			The Conduction Tissues
			The Triangle of Koch, Location of the Atrioventricular Node, and the His Bundle
			The Left Atrium
			The Atrial Septum
			The Left Atrioventricular Junction
			The Coronary Sinus and Venous Tributaries
			The Ventricles
			Conclusions
			References
		Chapter 19: Physical and Experimental Aspects of Radiofrequency Energy, Generators, and Energy Delivery Systems
			Introduction
			The Biophysics of Radiofrequency Ablation
			Determinants of Lesion Size
			Coagulum Formation
			RF Catheter Impedance for Determining the Status of the Delivered Lesion
			Steam Popping
			Improvements in Catheter Ablation
			Contact Force
			Duty-Cycled Phased RF Energy
			Conclusions
			References
		Chapter 20: Cryothermal Ablation Technology and Catheter Delivery Systems
			History of Cryotherapy
			Pathophysiology of Lesion Formation, Histological Effects, and Determinants of Lesion Size
			Advantages of Cryothermal Ablation
			Disadvantages of Cryothermal Ablation
			Delivery Systems
			Conclusion
			References
		Chapter 21: Laser, Ultrasound, and Microwave Ablation
			Introduction
			Laser Ablation
			Ultrasound Ablation
			Microwave Ablation
			References
		Chapter 22: Ablation Technology for the Surgical Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation
			Introduction
			Requirements for Surgical Ablation
			Anatomic Considerations
			Cryoablation
			Unipolar Radiofrequency Energy
			Bipolar Radiofrequency Energy
			Other Energy Sources
			Conclusion
			References
		Chapter 23: Remote Navigation in Catheter Procedures
			Introduction
			Remote Robotic Navigation
			Remote Magnetic Navigation
			Advantages of Magnetic Systems
			Robotic Catheter Manipulation
			Conclusion
			References
	Section 1E: Drug Therapy
		Chapter 24: How to Perform Drug Testing and Use Antiarrhythmic Drugs in Clinical EP
			Introduction
			Drug Testing in Channelopathies
			Long QT Syndrome
			Brugada Syndrome
			Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia
			Pharmacological Manipulation of Tachyarrhythmia
			Assessing Accessory Pathway Risk for Rapid Antegrade Conduction
			Diagnosing the Substrate for AV Node Reentry
			Pharmacological Provocation in Bradycardia
			Pharmacological Provocation for Interventional Procedure
			Conclusion
			References
		Chapter 25: Clinical Pharmacology of Anesthetic Agents and Their Application in Cardiac EP Procedures
			Introduction
			Local Anesthetics
			Intravenous Anesthetics
			Muscle Relaxants
			Inhalation Anesthetics
			Interaction of Anesthetics
			Types of Anesthesia
			Anesthesia Considerations for EP Procedures
			Summary
			References
                        

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