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Title[Kenneth R. Westphal] Hegel's Epistemology a Phil(BookFi.org)
TagsArgument Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel Epistemology Immanuel Kant Phenomenology (Philosophy)
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Total Pages161
Document Text Contents
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Hegel's Epistemology

A Philosophical Introduction to the
Phenomenology of Spirit

Kenneth R. Westphal

Hackett Publishing Company, Inc.
Indianapolis/Cambridge

Page 80

SECTION 15 65

14. Chart of the Structure of Hegel's Epistemological
Argument in the Phenomenology of Spirit

The chart on the following two pages displays Hegel's Table of Contents
on the left and, facing it on the right, the key epistemological theses that
he argues for in each section of his text. The logician's abbreviation "t.s."
means "to show"; it designates a key claim to be justified.

15. Summary of Hegel's Transcendental
Argument for Realism

Hegel's reputation not withstanding, I have repeatedly stressed his real-
ism (sans phrase). Here I sketch one of his key arguments for realism.
Much of Hegel's epistemology depends upon his radical reinterpretation
of Kant's "Refutation of Idealism," to the effect that we human beings
can only be self-conscious if we are conscious of various spatiotemporal
objects and events in our natural environs. This argument also supports
Hegel's crucial argument for mental-content externalism. 18

Hegel developed one of his key transcendental arguments for realism
and for mental-content externalism through a powerful internal critique
of Kant's transcendental idealism (Westphal 1989a, 150-3; 1996). Ac-
cording! y, summarizing Hegel's argument requires a brief review of some
central features of Kant's epistemology and its attendant idealism. A cru-
cial feature of Kant's "formal" idealism is that the matter of experience
is given to us ab extra. This is itself a transcendental material condition
of self-conscious experience (Allison 1983, 250). Kant recognized one
other transcendental material condition of self-conscious experience: the
"transcendental affinity of the manifold of intuition" (A113-4). Very
briefly, this condition notes that any world in which human beings are ca-
pable of self-conscious experience is one that provides us with a certain
minimal and, to us, recognizable degree of regularity and variety among

of points made in this section, he cannot identify connections between Hegel's
epistemology and the contemporary analytic issues that interest him. Hegel also
plays central if largely symbolic roles in McDowell (1994) and Brandom (1994).
Sellars (1963b, 148) characterizes some of "Empiricism and the Philosophy of
Mind" as "incipient Meditations Hegeliennes." Although some of his conclusions
accord with Hegel's, Sellars' arguments differ greatly from Hegel's. Regrettably,
Brandom (1999, 175) disregards their differences.

18. "Mental-content externalism" is the thesis that at least some of the contents
of some of our "mental" states can be fully specified only in relation to objects or
events in our environment that are "external" to our minds and bodies.

Page 81

TABLEOFCONTENTSOFHEGEVSPHENOMENOLOGY

A.
CONSCIOUSNESS

I. Sense Certainty: the This and the Meaning

II. Perception: the Thing and Deception

Ill. Force and Understanding: Appearance and the Supersensible World

B. IV. The Truth of Self-Certainty [Life and Desire]
IV A. Self-Sufficiency and N on-Selfsufficiency of Self-Consciousness; Lord and

Bondsman
SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS IVB. Freedom of Self- a STOICISM

C. (AA.)

REASON

(BB.)

[IMMEDIATE] SPIRIT

(CC.)

RELIGION

(DD.)
ABSOLUTE KNOWING

Consczousness b. SKEPTICISM

v. Certainty and Truth of Reason

VA. Observing Reason

VB. The Self-Actuali-
zation of Rational
Self-Consciousness

vc. Individuality that
is Real m and for Itself

VI. Spirit

VIA. True Spirit; Ethics

VIB. Self-Alienated Spirit;
Enculturation
[Bildung]

VIC. Self-Certain Spirit;
Morality

VII. ReligiOn

VIlA. Natural Religion

VIIB. Art-Religion

VIIC. Manifest Religion

VIII.

c. UNHAPPY CoNSCIOUSNESS

a OBSERVATION OF NATURE
b. OBSERVATION OF SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS I:

LoGic AND PsYCHOLOGY
c. OBSERVATION OF SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS II:

PHYSIOGNOMY AND PHRENOLOGY

a PLEASURE AND NECESSITY
b. THE LAW OF THE HEART AND THE INSANITY

OF CONCEIT
C. VIRTUE AND THE WAY OF THE WoRLD

a THE ANIMAL KINGDOM OF THE SPIRIT
b. LEGISLATIVE REASON
c. LAW-TESTING REASON

a. THE ETHICAL WoRLD; HuMAN AND DIVINE
LAw; MAN AND WoMAN

b. ETHicAL AcTioN; HUMAN AND DIVINE
KNOWLEDGE; GUILT AND FATE

c. LEGAL STATUS

a THE WoRLD OF SELF-ALIENATED SPIRIT
i. Enculturation and Its Realm of Actuality
ii. Faith and Pure Insight

b. THE ENLIGHTENMENT
i. The Enlightenment's Struggle against

Superstition
ii. The Truth of the Enlightenment

c. ABsoLUTE FREEDOM AND THE TERRoR

a. THE MoRAL WoRLD-VIEW
b. DISSEMBLANCE
c. CoNSCIENCE; THE BEAUTIFUL SouL; EviL

AND ITs FoRGIVENESS

a THE "LIGHT-BEING"
b. PLANT AND ANIMAL
c. THE ARTIFICER

a THE ABSTRACT WoRK OF ART
b. THE LIVING WoRK oF ART
c. THE SPIRITUAL WoRK oF ART

Page 160

SUBJECT INDEX

question-begging (petitio principii),
9,35-6,45,48,89

rationalism, 51, 52, 84, 87, 87n7,
88;mad,35n11,52,52n7

rationality, pragmatic, 4, 47-50;
also see justification, pragmatic

realism, 92; consistent with social-
historical epistemology, 2, 51, 60,
64, 72-5, 87n7; empirical (Kant),
59; epistemological, 4, 59, 64, 71,
72-5, defined, 2, 53; internal
(Putnam), 71, 92; naive, 58;
pragmatic 73, 81n13, 87n7, 88,
114-5n20, also see realism,
consistent with social-historical
epistemology; sans phrase,
transcendental argument for
(Hegel), 65-71, 98; vs. historicist
relativism, 2, 3, 72, 88, 102, 103,
107, 112-3, cf. 90

Realphilosophie (Hegel), 54
reason, 'in' nature, 53; vs. tradition,

77-9, 89-91; also see judgment,
mature; rationality

Reason (PhdG), 63,76
recognition, mutual, 60-2; thesis of,

defined, 61
reductionism, of physical objects to

sense data, 84, 85, 87-8, cf. 86n6
reference, descriptions theory of,

75-6; defined, 75
reflection, philosophical, 3--4, 69;

transcendental (Kant), 11, 12, 69;
also see judgment, reflective

reflective equilibrium, 49, 101
Refutation of Idealism (Kant),

59-60,62,65
regress argument, 9, 38, 45, 48, 50
relations, internal and external,

115n21
relativism, 48-9, 74; historicist, 2,
7~8~88n10,98n6, 101,103,c(
89-91

relevant alternatives, see
justification, relevant alternatives

145

Religion (PhdG), 64, 64n16
rule-following, 81n12; also see

justification, deductive model of

schema (Kant), defined, 68n19
scheme, conceptual, 41, 42, 51, 75,

75-6; corrigibility of, 54, 63-64,
98, 100-1; relativity of, 42, 74,
75-6, 96, 101, also see
relativism, historicist

science, the hypothesis of (Peirce),
114n20

seeing, nonepistemic, 94
seeing that, 94, 94n3; also see

knowledge, propositional form of
Self-Alienated Spirit (PhdG), 63
Self-Consciousness (PhdG), 59, 62,

76
self-criticism, 7, 9, 12, 39, 40, 45,

49;constructive,36,45,47,40,
54, 90, 96, 1 00; also see
consciousness, self-critical
structure of; critique, internal

self -evidence, insufficiency of, 11,
28n17,32,38

self-knowledge, see self-
understanding

Self-sufficiency and Non-
Selfsufficiency of Self-
Consciousness (PhdG), 59, 60

self-understanding, 32, 33-5, 37,
51,54

semantic ascent, defined, 74; also
see speech, modes of

sensation, 42-3, 45, 54, 55, 58, 65,
68-71, 78,83,83n2,85-7,88,
94, 94n3, 97, cf. 100, 100n9; also
see concept-empiricism,
experience, sense data

sense data, 54, 103; logical
constructions of, 84, 85,
87n6

Sense Certainty (PhdG), 45, 58, 82,
84,93

sensing strictly speaking
(Descartes), 78

Page 161

146

skepticism, five modes of (Agrippa),
9, 32, 45, 48, 50; Pyrrhonian, 2,
9, 36; responding to, 57; also see
regress argument, question-
begging

skills, 79, 80, 97, 104-6, 107, 109,
114; also see judgment, mature

sociology of knowledge, see
knowledge, sociology of

sortals, see classification
source of information, see

information, source
space, 59, conception of, see

conceptions, pure a priori
speech, modes of, formal vs.

material, 74; defined, 74n3
spirit, 54
Spirit (PhdG), 63-4
Spirit, Immediate (PhdG), defined,

31n6
spontaneity (of judgment), 79-80;

also see autonomy
Strong Programme (sociology of

knowledge), 107n10, cf. 112n16
subject, plural, 113-4; defined, 113
sublation, see Aufhebung
System of Philosophical Science

(Hegel), 55

ta phainomena (Aristotle), 7
The Moral World View (PhdG), 64
The Truth of Self-Certainty (PhdG),

59,96

SUBJECT INDEX

things, as unsensed causes of
sensory experience, 54; in
themselves (Kant), 59; also see
particulars

throwing ball, 105-6
tradition, see norms, conventional
tradition vs. reason, see reason
traditionalism, 77, also see norms,

conventional
training, see education
transcendental chaos, see chaos,

transcendental
Treatise of Human Nature (Hume),

1,84n3
True Spirit (PhdG), 63
truth, analysis of, correspondence,

51, 71, 73;condition,46;criteria
of,40-4,46,49-50,51, 73,98,
cf. 75, 81, also see justification,
criteria of; minimalism about, 71;
values, assignment of (Quine),
77n7,103n2

Unhappy Consciousness (PhdG), 61

Vienna Circle, 83; also see
empiricism, logical

wax, 87n7
Weltanschauung, 100, 101, 102
window, opening, 106
wisdom, 34; also see self-

knowledge, self-understanding

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