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Table of Contents
                            LET Reviewer Social Science Major
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- Historical Particularism - Franz Boas. the proponent, believed that it was
premature to formulate universal law since there is a need to study the context of
society in which they appeared.

- Diffusionism (British, German and Austrian Anthropologists) spread the idea
that most aspects of civilization had emerged in culture centers and later diffused

- Functionalism (Bronislaw Malinowski). It holds that all culture traits serve
the needs of individuals in a society; the function of culture traits is the ability to
satisfy some basic or derived need.

- Structural-functionalist approach (Arthur Reginald Radcliffe-
Brown) assumes that the various aspects of social behavior maintain a society's
social structure- its total network of social relationships - rather than satisfying
individual needs. It works in the following assumption: stability, harmony,
equilibrium and evolution.

- Psychological Approaches (Edward Sapir, Ruth Benedict and Margaret
Mead) seek to understand how psychological factors and processes may help us
explain cultural practices.

- Later Evolutionism (Leslie White) states that culture evolves as the amount
of energy harnessed per capita per year is increased or as the efficiency of the
instrumental means of putting the energy to work increased.

- Structuralism- Claude Levi-Strauss sees culture as it is expressed in art, ritual,
and the patterns of daily life, as a surface representation of the underlying patterns
of the human mind.

- Ethno science (ethnography) explains culture from the way people used to
describe their activities.

- Cultural Ecology seeks to understand the relationship between culture and social

- Political economy centers on the impact of external political and economic
processes, particularly as connected to colonialism and imperialism, on local events
and cultures in the underdeveloped countries.

- Sociobiology involves the application of biological evolutionary principles to
the social behavior of animals, including humans.

- Interpretive approaches consider cultures as texts to be analyzed for their

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