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TitleLinguistic and Literacy Development of Children and Adolescents
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Table of Contents
                            1. Behavioral Theory/ Learning Perspective
2. Nativist Linguistic Theory
3. Social Interactionist Theory
4. Cognitive Theory of language development
	3. A person is not truly bilingual unless he is equally proficient in both languages. It is rare to find an individual who is equally proficient in both languages. Most bilinguals have a “dominant language”, a language of greater proficiency. The dominant language is often influenced by the majority language of the society in which the individual lives. An individual’s dominant language can change with age, circumstance, education, social network, employment, and many other factors.
	4. An individual must learn a second language as a young child in order to become bilingual. There is a “Critical Period” theory that suggests that there is a window of time (early childhood) during which a second language is most easily learned. This theory has led many people to believe that it is better to learn a second language as a young child. Young children have been found to achieve better native-like pronunciation than older children or adult second language learners. And they seem to achieve better long-term grammatical skills than older learners.  But other findings have called the idea of a critical period into question. For example:
Benefits of Bilingualism
How Children Learn More Than One Language

	 Infant or early bilingual acquisiton involves the child learning two languages virtually simultaneosly from the outset. Sometimes this results from having parents who have different native languages, but also speak the other parent’s language. Early age of bilingual exposure has a significant impact on multiple aspects of a child’s development: linguistic, cognitive and reading.Children who experince early and extensive exposure to both of their languages quickly grasp the fundamentals of both of their languages and in a manner similar to that of monolingual language learners
	Language disorders or language impairments refer to any systematic deviation in the way people speak, listen, read, write, or sign that interferes with their ability to communicate with their peers. The disorders may involve the form of language (phonology, syntax, and morphology), its content or meaning (semantics), or its use (pragmatics), in any combination. The disorders themselves vary according to the degree of severity and the level of language they affect.
		1. Speech and language rehabilitation
		2. Medications
		 The problem in dyslexia is a linguistic one, not a visual one. Dyslexia in no way stems from any lack of intelligence. People with severe dyslexia can be brilliant.
		Signs and Symptoms of Dyslexia
			1. Phonological awareness - is thought to be a key skill in early reading and spelling development. It is the ability to identify how words are made up of smaller units of sound, known as phonemes. Changes in the sounds that make up words can lead to changes in their meaning.
			2. Verbal memory - is the ability to remember a sequence of verbal information for a short period of time.
			3. Rapid serial naming - this is the ability to name a series of colors, objects or numbers as fast as possible.
			4. Verbal processing speed - is the time it takes to process and recognize familiar verbal information, such as letters and digits.
		2. Acquired Dyslexia
		3. Phonological Processing
		1. Early educational interventions
			1.a.1 Phonemic awareness  - Phonemic awareness teaches children how to recognise and identify sounds (phonemes) in spoken words. For example, it helps a child to recognise that even very short words such as "hat" are actually made up of three phonemes: "h", "a" and "t". Another important part of phonemic awareness involves understanding that you can manipulate phonemes to change words, such as changing the "h" to a "c" to create the word "cat".
			1.a.2. Phonics instruction - Phonics instruction teaches children how to sound out printed words by recognising the written letters that correspond to spoken phonemes. Letters that correspond to phonemes are known as graphemes. Phonics also teaches children how to decode multisyllabic words, such as "crocodile" and apply previous learned rules so they have a better understanding of new words.
			1.a.3. Spelling and writing instruction
			1.a.4. Fluency instruction - Fluency instruction allows children to practice reading words accurately. The goal is for a child to be able to read with a good level of accuracy and speed. This is important because if a child spends a lot of time trying to focus on reading individual words, it is easy to lose track of the text as a whole, and they may not properly understand what they are reading.
			1.a.5. Vocabulary instruction - Vocabulary instruction teaches children to recognise words they are reading, while building and understanding new words.
			1.a.6. Comprehension instruction - Comprehension instruction teaches children to monitor their own understanding while they read. They are encouraged to ask questions if they notice gaps in their understanding, while also linking what they are reading to information they have previously learned.
		1.b. PHONICS - IMPORTANT FEATURES - There is good evidence to indicate that the most effective methods of teaching phonics to children with dyslexia contain the features described below.
			1.b.1. Structure - Teaching should be highly structured, with development in small steps, building logically on what has been previously learnt.
			1.b.2. Multisensory - Children with dyslexia learn better when they use as many different senses as possible. An example of multisensory teaching is where a child is taught to see the letter "a", say its name and sound, and write it in the air (all at the same time).
			1.b.3. Reinforcement - Skills should be reinforced through regular practice, because children with dyslexia often have to "overlearn" skills already mastered. This helps to improve their automatic recognition of correct phonemes, letters and rules in reading and writing.
			1.b.4. Skill teaching - Early interventions in children with dyslexia should focus on development of useful skills that can be transferred to other areas, rather than teaching children to learn and retain big chunks of information that could place unnecessary strain on their memory.
			1.b.5. Metacognition - Metacognition means "thinking about the way you think". In practice, metacognition involves encouraging children to recognise that there are different learning methods and approaches available to them, and then thinking about which ones would be best for them to use in different circumstances.
			1.b.6 Breaking down emotional barriers - Another important feature of any educational intervention is to recognise that many children with dyslexia can develop emotional barriers that can make learning more difficult, such as anxiety, frustration and low confidence. Therefore, it is important to break down these barriers through encouragement, empathy and fostering the child’s self-esteem.
			Main Elements of Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory
	 This theory views an individual’s development within the context of the system of relationships that form her environment.
	 Bronfenbrenner’s theory has been historically applied to child development. By defining complex layers of environment, each having an effect on a child’s development, this theory emphasizes that a child’s interaction between factors in the child’s maturing biology, his immediate family/community environment, and the societal landscape fuels and steers his development.
	 Furthermore, changes or conflict in any one layer will ripple throughout other layers. To study a child’s development then, we must look not only at the child and her immediate environment, but also at the interaction of the larger environment as well.
	3. Exosystem - this layer defines the larger social system in which the individual does not function directly. The structures in this layer impact the child’s development by interacting with some structure in her microsystem (Berk, 2000). Parent workplace schedules or community-based family resources are examples. The child may not be directly involved at this level, but he does feel the positive or negative force involved with the interaction with his own system.
	4. Macrosystem: This layer may be considered the outermost layer in the individual’s environment. While not being a specific framework, this layer is comprised of cultural values, customs, and laws (Berk, 2000). The effects of larger principles defined by the macrosystem have a cascading influence throughout the interactions of all other layers. For example, if it is the belief of the culture that parents should be solely responsible for raising their children, that culture is less likely to provide resources to help parents. This, in turn, affects the structures in which the parents function.
	5. Chronosystem: This system encompasses the dimension of time as it relates to an individual’s environments. Elements within this system can be either external, such as the timing of a parent’s death, or internal, such as the physiological changes that occur with the aging of a child. As children get older, they may react differently to environmental changes and may be more able to determine more how that change will influence them.
                        
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Adaptation – is adjusting one’s thinking according to environmental demands. Assimilation
and accommodation are the two parts of adaptation – which is simply what it says – adapting our
schemata to make an accurate (enough) model of the world we live in.

II. The Four Processes:

 The four processes that enable the transition from one cognitive stage to another
are assimilation, accommodation, disequilibrium, and equilibration.

Assimilation – is the process of taking in new information and fitting it into a preconceived
notion about objects or the world; it is making use of an existing schema to a new experience.

Accommodation – is the process of adjusting to new experiences or objects by revising the
old plan to fit new information; it is modifying an existing schema to make it work in a new
experience.

Disequilibrium – is a state of confusion, dissonance, or discomfort when new information
does not integrate within existing structures. This confusion motivates us to achieve the new
challenge and to restore balance between assimilation and accommodation, which when
achieved, is equilibrium.

Equilibration – is the balance between the processes of assimilation and accommodation. It
is the force that drives the learning process to restore balance by mastering the new challenge
(information) presented.

 Educators generally view these processes as an explanation of cognitive learning
processes, not just those that lead to major shifts in cognitive ability (Piaget, 1973, p. 36).

 Together, assimilation and accommodation are processes of adjustment to changes in the
environment and are defined as adaptation, the continuous process of using the environment to
learn. And, according to Piaget, adaptation is the most important principle of human functioning.

 In summary, children have schemata (cognitive structures that contain pre-existing ideas
of the world), which are constantly changing. Schemata constantly undergo adaptation, through
the processes of assimilation and accommodation. When seeing new objects there is a state
of tension, and a child will attempt to assimilate the information to see if it fits into prior
schemata. If this fails, the information must be accommodated by either adding new schemata or
modifying the existing ones to accommodate the information. By balancing the use of
assimilation and accommodation, an equilibrium is created, reducing cognitive tension
(equilibration).

III. The Four Stages of Cognitive Development:

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 Turner syndrome is related to the X chromosome, which is one of the two sex
chromosomes. People typically have two sex chromosomes in each cell: females have two X
chromosomes, while males have one X chromosome and one Y chromosome. Turner syndrome
results when one normal X chromosome is present in a female's cells and the other sex
chromosome is missing or structurally altered. The missing genetic material affects development
before and after birth.

 About half of individuals with Turner syndrome have monosomy X, which means each
cell in the individual's body has only one copy of the X chromosome instead of the usual two sex
chromosomes. Turner syndrome can also occur if one of the sex chromosomes is partially missing
or rearranged rather than completely absent. Some women with Turner syndrome have a
chromosomal change in only some of their cells, which is known as mosaicism. Women with
Turner syndrome caused by X chromosome mosaicism are said to have mosaic Turner syndrome.

 Most cases of Turner syndrome are not inherited. When this condition results from
monosomy X, the chromosomal abnormality occurs as a random event during the formation of
reproductive cells (eggs and sperm) in the affected person's parent. An error in cell division
called nondisjunction can result in reproductive cells with an abnormal number of chromosomes.
For example, an egg or sperm cell may lose a sex chromosome as a result of nondisjunction. If
one of these atypical reproductive cells contributes to the genetic makeup of a child, the child
will have a single X chromosome in each cell and will be missing the other sex chromosome.

 Mosaic Turner syndrome is also not inherited. In an affected individual, it occurs as a
random event during cell division in early fetal development. As a result, some of an affected
person's cells have the usual two sex chromosomes, and other cells have only one copy of the X
chromosome. Other sex chromosome abnormalities are also possible in females with X
chromosome mosaicism. Rarely, Turner syndrome caused by a partial deletion of the X
chromosome can be passed from one generation to the next.

3. PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS
 is a collection of disorders characterized by gross deficits

4. AUTISTIC DISORDER
 is a pervasivedevelopmental disorder otherwise known as early infantile autism or

childhood autism. The first to have identified this disorder is psychiatrist Leo Kanner (another
name for the disorder is Kanner’s autism) who noted its many puzzling and disturbing
characteristics.



5. ASPERGER’S SYNDROME

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