Download National Water Quality Management Strategy Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling PDF

TitleNational Water Quality Management Strategy Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling
File Size1.6 MB
Total Pages252
Table of Contents
                            RECMAR-16-PROOF(17Aug09).pdf
	Contents
	
	Acronyms and abbreviations
	General
	Units
	
	Acknowledgments
	Joint Steering Committee
	Managed Aquifer Recharge Guidelines Working Group
	Managed Aquifer Recharge Guidelines Writing Team
	Managed Aquifer Recharge Guidelines Reference Panel
	Public comments
	Consultancy services
	1 Introduction
		1.1 Origin and purpose of national guidelines on managed aquifer recharge
		1.2 Scope of the managed aquifer recharge guidelines
			1.2.1 Relationship with other guidelines
			1.2.2 Sources of water, types of aquifers and purposes
			1.2.3 Water allocation, water trading and other water governance issues
		1.3 Stages of project development and assessment
		1.4 How to use the managed aquifer recharge guidelines
	
	2 Managed aquifer recharge
		2.1 Definition, purposes and types of managed aquifer recharge
			2.1.1 Definition and purposes of managed aquifer recharge
			2.1.2 Types of managed aquifer recharge
				Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR)
				Aquifer storage, transport and recovery (ASTR)
				Vadose zone wells
				Percolation tanks and recharge weirs
				Rainwater harvesting
				Bank filtration
				Infiltration galleries
				Dune filtration
				Infiltration ponds
				Soil aquifer treatment
				Underground dams
				Sand dams
				Recharge releases
		2.2 Selection of recharge method
		2.3 Benefits of managed aquifer recharge for recycling
		2.4 Situations where managed aquifer recharge is not viable
		2.5 Existing recharge increase and managed aquifer recharge
	3 Framework for managing aquifer recharge
		3.1 Element 1: Commitment to responsible use and management of recycled water quality
		3.2 Element 2: Assessment of the managed aquifer recharge system
			3.2.1 Hazard identification
			3.2.2 Dose–response and exposure assessment of the identified hazards
			3.2.3 Risk characterisation
		3.3 Element 3: Preventive measures for recycled water management
		3.4 Element 4: Operational procedures and process control
		3.5 Element 5: Verification of water quality and environmental performance
		3.6 Element 6: Management of incidents and emergencies
		3.7 Element 7: Operator, contractor and end-user awareness and training
		3.8 Element 8: Community involvement and awareness
		3.9 Element 9: Validation, research and development
		3.10 Element 10: Documentation and reporting
		3.11 Element 11: Evaluation and audit
		3.12 Element 12: Review and continuous improvement
	
	4 Stages of managed aquifer recharge project development and assessment
		4.1 Overview
		4.2 Simplified assessment
		4.3 Entry-level assessment
			4.3.1 Entry-level assessment — viability
			4.3.2 Entry-level assessment — degree of difficulty
		4.4 Maximal risk assessment
		4.5 Precommissioning residual risk assessment
		4.6 Operational residual risk assessment
	5 Hazard identification and preventive measures
		5.1 Pathogens
			5.1.1 Effect of pathogens on public health and the environment
			5.1.2 Source of pathogens in managed aquifer recharge
			5.1.3 Fate and behaviour of pathogens in managed aquifer recharge
			5.1.4 Other preventive measures
			5.1.5 Management of pathogens via managed aquifer recharge
		5.2 Inorganic chemicals
			5.2.1 Effect of inorganic chemicals on public health and the environment
			5.2.2 Sources and fate of inorganic chemicals in managed aquifer recharge
				Arsenic increase
				Iron increase
				Manganese increase
				Trace ion increase
				Hydrogen sulfide increase
				Changes to major ion composition
				Excessive dissolution of carbonate minerals
			5.2.3 Management of inorganic chemicals
		5.3 Salinity and sodicity
			5.3.1 Effects of salinity and sodicity on public health and the environment
			5.3.2 Sources of salt in managed aquifer recharge
			5.3.3 Management of salinity and sodicity
			5.3.4 Mitigation of salinity and sodicity hazards in relation to stages of risk assessment
		5.4 Nutrients: nitrogen, phosphorus and organic carbon
			5.4.1 Effect of nutrients on public health and the environment
			5.4.2 Sources and fate of nutrients in managed aquifer recharge
			5.4.3 Management of nutrients
		5.5 Organic chemicals
			5.5.1 Effect of organic chemicals on public health and the environment
			5.5.2 Sources and fate of organic chemicals in managed aquifer recharge
			5.5.3 Management of organic chemicals
		5.6 Turbidity and particulates
			5.6.1 Effect of turbidity on public health and the environment
			5.6.2 Sources of turbidity in managed aquifer recharge
			5.6.3 Management of turbidity
		5.7 Radionuclides
			5.7.1 Effect of radionuclides on public health and the environment
			5.7.2 Sources of radionuclides in managed aquifer recharge
			5.7.3 Management of radionuclides
		5.8 Pressure, flow rates, volumes and groundwater levels
			5.8.1 Confined and semiconfined aquifers
				Injection pressure
				Artesian region
				Transfer of fluid pressure and constituents
				Volume, recharge and recovery rates
				Plastic deformation
			5.8.2 Unconfined aquifers
		5.9 Contaminant migration in fractured rock and karstic aquifers
		5.10 Aquifer dissolution and stability of well and aquitard
			5.10.1 pH and redox status of injectant
			5.10.2 Labile organic carbon
			5.10.3 Aquifer depletion
			5.10.4 Surfactants
			5.10.5 Algal blooms
		5.11 Aquifer and groundwater-dependent ecosystems
			5.11.1 Microorganisms
			5.11.2 Stygofauna
			5.11.3 Phreatophytic vegetation
			5.11.4 Aquatic flora and fauna
			5.11.5 Risk assessment and management for ecosystem protection
				Pesticides and antibiotics
				Volumes and rates of recharge and recovery
				Siting of managed aquifer recharge projects
		5.12 Energy and greenhouse gas considerations
	6 Operational issues and their management
		6.1 Clogging
			6.1.1 Types and causes of clogging
				Filtration of suspended solids
				Microbial growth
				Geochemical reactions
				Air entrainment and gaseous binding
			6.1.2 Management of clogging
			6.1.3 Tools for predicting clogging
				Measures of recharge water-quality parameters
				Laboratory column studies
				Graphical techniques
				Numerical or mass balance modelling
			6.1.4 Recharge water-quality requirements for sustained managed aquifer recharge operations
		6.2 Salinity of recovered water
			6.2.1 Recovery efficiency
			6.2.2 Factors affecting mixing and recovery efficiency
			6.2.3 Recovery efficiency data for Australian aquifer storage and recovery operations
			6.2.4 Management of mixing and recovery efficiency
			6.2.5 Evaluation of recovery efficiency
			6.2.6 Reliability and continuity of supply
				Natural variability in climate
				Climate change
				Capture efficiency
				Catchment changes affecting runoff
				Sewer catchment changes
				Source-water availability
				Planning and management to increase reliability of supply
		6.3 Interactions with other groundwater users
			6.3.1 Competition for source water — treated sewage, stormwater or groundwater
			6.3.2 Competition for aquifer storage space
		6.4 Protection against saline water intrusion
		6.5 Operations designed to protect groundwater-dependent ecosystems
		6.6 Management of purge water, basin scrapings and water treatment byproducts
	
	7 Monitoring managed aquifer recharge systems
		7.1 General principles
		7.2 Types of monitoring
			7.2.1 Baseline monitoring
			7.2.2 Validation monitoring
			7.2.3 Operational monitoring (including supervisory control and data acquisition and web-based reporting systems)
			7.2.4 Verification monitoring
		7.3 Monitoring for management of health and environmental risks in managed aquifer recharge systems
			7.3.1 Baseline monitoring of the subsurface component for managing health and environmental risks
			7.3.2 Validation monitoring of the subsurface component for health and environmental risks
			7.3.3 Operational monitoring of the subsurface component for managing health and environmental risks
			7.3.4 Verification monitoring for health and environmental risks in managed aquifer recharge systems
		7.4 Monitoring of small-scale managed aquifer recharge systems
		7.5 Quality assurance and quality control
		7.6 Data analysis and interpretation
		7.7 Reporting and information dissemination
		7.8 Review and feedback
	
	Appendix 1 Environmental values and entry-level assessment
	Appendix 2 Examples of information requirements for Stage 2 investigations
	Scheme concept
	Source water and catchment information
	Aquifer information
	Appendix 3 Examples of methods available for investigations and validation monitoring, as part of Stage 3 commissioning and trials
	Appendix 4 Inactivation rates for pathogens in aquifers (informative only)
	
	Appendix 5 Environmental fate data for organic chemicals (informative only)
		Physical properties
		Sorption
		Volatilisation
		Biodegradation
	Appendix 6 Prediction of pathogens and organic chemicals in groundwater and recovered water (informative only)
	A6.1 Managed aquifer recharge in different situations
	Documentation of method
		Single-well systems
		Dual-well systems
		Bank filtration
		Other situations
		Nomogram for dual-well system
	A6.2 Managed aquifer recharge involving infiltration through the unsaturated zone
	
	Appendix 7 Decision trees to identify potential arsenic and iron release in managed aquifer recharge
	Appendix 8 Aquifer characteristics and suitability for managed aquifer recharge
	Appendix 9 Operational performance data
	A9.1 Calculation of mixing fraction of recharge water in groundwater or recovered water
	A9.2 Summary of recovery efficiencies at ASR sites
	
	Appendix 10 Examples of Australian managed aquifer recharge sites
	Appendix 11 Case study of assessment of risks in relation to preventive measures
	
	Glossary
	Tables, figures and boxes
	Tables
	Figures
	Boxes
	References
                        

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