Download NCERT Book Political Science II Class XII PDF

TitleNCERT Book Political Science II Class XII
TagsTypes School Work Study Guides Notes & Quizzes
File Size34.1 MB
Total Pages206
Table of Contents
letter to the readers
Document Text Contents
Page 1



Foreword --- iii
Letter to the Readers --- v

Chapter 1
Challenges of Nation Building 2

Chapter 2
Era of One-party Dominance 26

Chapter 3
politics of planned Development 46

Chapter 4
India’s External Relations 64

Chapter 5
Challenges to and Restoration of the Congress system 82

Chapter 6
The Crisis of Democratic Order 102

Chapter 7
Rise of popular Movements 128

Chapter 8
Regional Aspirations 148

Chapter 9
Recent Developments in Indian politics 172

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/book_publishing/NEW BOOK 2007/class12/politics in india II/letter to the readers.pdf

Page 2



The National Curriculum Framework (NCF) 2005 recommends that
children’s life at school must be linked to their life outside the school.
This principle marks a departure from the legacy of bookish learning
which continues to shape our system and causes a gap between the
school, home and community. The syllabi and textbooks developed
on the basis of NCF signify an attempt to implement this basic idea.
They also attempt to discourage rote learning and the maintenance
of sharp boundaries between different subject areas. We hope these
measures will take us significantly further in the direction of a
child-centred system of education outlined in the National policy on
Education (1986).

The success of this effort depends on the steps that school principals
and teachers will take to encourage children to reflect on their own
learning and to pursue imaginative activities and questions. We must
recognise that, given space, time and freedom, children generate
new knowledge by engaging with the information passed on to them
by adults. Treating the prescribed textbook as the sole basis of
examination is one of the key reasons why other resources and sites
of learning are ignored. Inculcating creativity and initiative is possible
if we perceive and treat children as participants in learning, not as
receivers of a fixed body of knowledge.

These aims imply considerable change in school routines and mode of
functioning. Flexibility in the daily time-table is as necessary as rigour
in implementing the annual calendar so that the required number of
teaching days are actually devoted to teaching. The methods used for
teaching and evaluation will also determine how effective this textbook
proves for making children’s life at school a happy experience, rather
than a source of stress or boredom. syllabus designers have tried
to address the problem of curricular burden by restructuring and
reorienting knowledge at different stages with greater consideration
for child psychology and the time available for teaching. The textbook
attempts to enhance this endeavour by giving higher priority and
space to opportunities for contemplation and wondering, discussion
in small groups, and activities requiring hands-on experience.

NCERT appreciates the hard work done by the textbook development
committee responsible for this book. We wish to thank the Chairperson
of the Advisory Group on social science, professor Hari Vasudevan
and the Chief Advisors for this book, shri Yogendra Yadav and
professor suhas palshikar for guiding the work of this committee.
several teachers contributed to the development of this textbook;
we are grateful to their principals for making this possible. We are
indebted to the institutions and organisations which have generously
permitted us to draw upon their resources, material and personnel.
We are especially grateful to the members of the National Monitoring

Page 103

Challenges to and Restoration of the Congress System 93

public distribution of food grains, land reforms and
provision of house sites to the rural poor. While the
‘syndicate’ leaders formally approved this Left-wing
programme, they had serious reservations about
the same.

Presidential election, 1969

The factional rivalry between the Syndicate and Indira
Gandhi came in the open in 1969. Following President
Zakir Hussain’s death, the post of President of the
India fell vacant that year. Despite Mrs Gandhi’s
reservations the ‘syndicate’ managed to nominate
her long time opponent and then speaker of the Lok
Sabha, N. Sanjeeva Reddy, as the official Congress
candidate for the ensuing Presidential elections.
Indira Gandhi retaliated by encouraging the then
Vice-President, V.V. Giri, to file his nomination as
an independent candidate. She also announced
several big and popular policy measures like the
nationalisation of fourteen leading private banks
and the abolition of the ‘privy purse’ or the special
privileges given to former princes. Morarji Desai was
the Deputy Prime Minister and Finance Minister.

“The Left Hook” was published after the victory of V.V. Giri, (the boxer with the garland)
over the nominee of the Sydicate, represented here by Nijalingappa (on his knees).













V.V. Giri
President of
India from
1969 to 1974;
worker and
labour leader
from Andhra
Pradesh; Indian
High Commissioner to Ceylon
(Sri Lanka); Labour Minister in
Union cabinet; Governor of U.P.,
Kerala, Mysore (Karnataka);
Vice-President (1967-1969) and
acting President after the death of
President Zakir Hussain; resigned
and contested presidential election
as independent candidate; received
support from Indira Gandhi for his
election as President.

Page 104

94 Politics in India since Independence

History … is
replete with instances of
the tragedy that overtakes
democracy when a leader
who has risen to power on
the crest of a popular wave
or with the support of a
democratic organisation
becomes a victim of
political narcissism
and is egged on by a
coterie of unscrupulous

S Nijalingappa
Letter to Indira Gandhi
expelling her from the
party, 11 November

“ “

On both the above issues serious differences emerged between him
and the Prime Minister resulting in Desai leaving the government.

Congress had seen differences of this kind in the past. But
this time both the parties wanted a showdown which took place
during the Presidential elections. The then Congress President
S. Nijalingappa issued a �whip� asking all the Congress MPs and MLAs
to vote in favour of Sanjeeva Reddy, the official candidate of the party.
Supporters of Indira Gandhi requisitioned a special meeting of the
AICC (that is why this faction came to be known as �requisitionists�)
but this was refused. After silently supporting V.V. Giri, the Prime
Minister openly called for a �conscience vote� which meant that the
MPs and MLAs from the Congress should be free to vote the way they
want. The election ultimately resulted in the victory of V.V. Giri, the
independent candidate, and the defeat of Sanjeeva Reddy, the official
Congress candidate.

The defeat of the official Congress candidate formalised the split
in the party. The Congress President expelled the Prime Minister
from the party; she claimed that her group was the real Congress. By
November 1969, the Congress group led by the �syndicate� came to be
referred to as the Congress (Organisation) and the group led by Indira
Gandhi came to be called the Congress (Requisitionists). These two
parties were also described as Old Congress and New Congress. Indira
Gandhi projected the split as an ideological divide between socialists
and conservatives, between the pro-poor and the pro-rich.

Abolition of Privy Purse

In Chapter One you have read about the integration of the Princely States. This integration was
preceded by an assurance that after the dissolution of princely rule, the then rulers’ families
would be allowed to retain certain private property, and given a grant in heredity or government
allowance, measured on the basis of the extent, revenue and potential of the merging state.
This grant was called the privy purse. At the time of accession, there was little criticism of these
privileges since integration and consolidation was the primary aim.

Yet, hereditary privileges were not consonant with the principles of equality and social and economic
justice laid down in the Constitution of India. Nehru had expressed his dissatisfaction over the
matter time and again. Following the 1967 elections, Indira Gandhi supported the demand that the
government should abolish privy purses. Morarji Desai, however, called the move morally wrong
and amounting to a ‘breach of faith with the princes’.

The government tried to bring a Constitutional amendment in 1970, but it was not passed in Rajya
Sabha. It then issued an ordinance which was struck down by the Supreme Court. Indira Gandhi
made this into a major election issue in 1971 and got a lot of public support. Following its massive
victory in the 1971 election, the Constitution was amended to remove legal obstacles for abolition
of ‘privy purse’.

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