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TitleNEBOSH IGC1 Quiestion& Answers
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followed; by making them aware of any restricted areas; by training them in the

correct use of tools and equipment and ensuring they are fully conversant with the

use, maintenance and arrangements for reporting deficiencies of any personal

protective equipment that has to be used. Additionally, the induction training

programme will alert the new workers to the procedures for reporting hazards and

incidents, of the sources of help, advice and mentoring that are available to them

and of their own responsibility for ensuring accidents and incidents are kept to a

minimum. Finally the training programme will assist in helping the workers to

adopt a positive attitude to health and safety and to counter the negative attitude

that can often be created by peer pressure.



23. (a) Define the term 'hazard'. (2)
(b) Define the term 'risk'. (2)

(c) Identify FOUR means of hazard identification that may be used in the

workplace. (4)



Answers
(a) Hazard is defined as something with the potential to cause harm

(b) Risk is defined as the probability/likelihood that the potential would be

realized and its possible consequence and severity in terms of injury, damage or

harm.

(c) Means that may be used to identify hazards in the workplace include carrying

out inspections, observations and safety audits; completing task and/or job

analyses and risk assessments; the study of data on accidents and near miss

incidents including the investigation reports; reference to legislation and its

accompanying guidance and manufacturers' documents such as safety data sheets;

carrying out health surveillance and consulting with members of the workforce.


24. (a) Identify FOUR types of health and safety information that could be displayed on
a notice board in a workplace. (4)



(b) Identify how the effectiveness of notice boards as a method of communicating

health and safety information can be increased. (4)



Answer

(a) the types of information that could have been identified include: the health and

safety policy of the organisation; the "Information for Employees" poster;

information regarding health and safety representatives such as their names and

contact details; targets set for the reduction of accidents and ill health and

information showing the current level of performance against the targets;

forthcoming health and safety events including information on training courses

available; identification of first aid arrangements and procedures for evacuation in

the event of a fire; health and safety posters specific to current campaigns being

run; information on current issues affecting health and safety such as contract

work, no go areas and diversions; and a copy of the Employer's liability insurance

certificate.

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(b) The ways of increasing the effectiveness of notice boards include ensuring

they were located in a common and prominent area of the workplace such as the

staff room or canteen; dedicating the boards to health and safety matters; ensuring

the information displayed was relevant and current and kept up to date; giving

consideration to all ethnic groups and employees with special needs; displaying

the information in a neat and orderly fashion and making the notice board eye-

catching by the use of colour and graphics and, where possible, allocating

responsibility for the up-keep of the board to a named member of the workforce.





25. Explain why personal protective equipment (PPE) should be considered as a last
resort in the control of occupational health hazards. (8)



Answer

There are numerous reasons why personal protective equipment (PPE) should be

considered only after other possibilities or hierarchy of controls have been

exhausted or failed. At a basic level, it is a legal requirement that other means of

control are considered first. Other reasons include that PPE may not provide

adequate protection because of such factors as poor selection, poor fit,

incompatibility with other types of PPE, contamination, and misuse or non-use by

employees. In addition, PPE is likely to be uncomfortable and relies for its

effectiveness on a conscious action by the user. In certain circumstances, its use can

actually create additional risks for instance, warning sounds masked by hearing

protection.



26. Give reasons why a verbal instruction may not be clearly understood by an
employee. (8)



Answer:

The reasons include the nature of the working environment (eg high levels of noise,

interference from personal protective equipment and other distractions), the use of

too much technical jargon, language or dialect issues, ambiguity of the message,

sensory impairment or learning difficulties, the inexperience of the recipient (ie

being unable to relate properly to what is being said), and the fact that the

instruction may be too complex or lengthy to be given verbally.



27. (a) Define the term 'negligence '. (2)
(b) Outline the THREE standard conditions that must be met for an injured

employee to prove a case of negligence against his/her employer following an

accident at work. (6)

Answer:

(a) Negligence is defined as a civil wrong (tort) involving unreasonably careless

conduct (a breach of the common law duty of care), resulting in loss, damage or

injury.

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an investigation may be carried out to prevent a recurrence or to identify

weaknesses in the safety management system; for use in civil claims or to

satisfy insurance requirements; to help in the identification and reduction of

loss; and to inform the review of risk assessments



(b) The reasons for not reporting accidents at workplace include employee being
unaware of reporting procedures or the fact that no procedure was in place;

peer pressure and a reluctance to take time off from the job in hand; possible

retribution or blame by management; to preserve the company's or

department's safety record particularly when an incentive scheme is in

operation; to avoid receiving first-aid or medical treatment for whatever

reason; over-complicated reporting procedures, and lack of obvious

management response to earlier reported accidents.



49. Give reasons why it is important to use a variety of methods to communicate health
and safety information in the workplace. (8)



Answer:

The reasons to communicate variety of information in the workplace include,

people respond differently to different stimuli, and that variety prevents over-

familiarization with one method and helps to reinforce a message. Other reasons

that could have been given were: the need to overcome language barriers and the

inability of some workers to read; the need to motivate, stimulate interest and gain

involvement and feedback; the acceptance that different types of information

require different methods of communication for example emergency signs; that

the policy of the organization may require certain information to be in a specified

format; and that on occasions evidence that the message was given may need to

be kept.



50. Outline the immediate AND longer term actions that should be taken following an
accident at work that has caused serious injury to a worker. (8)



Answer:

The immediate actions such as: isolating services and making the area safe;

administering first aid treatment and contacting the emergency services;

informing the next of kin and offering counseling and support; notifying the

regulatory authority if appropriate; collecting initial evidence such as photographs

and sketches and the names of witnesses; setting up the accident investigation

team and investigating the accident; determining the root and underlying causes

of the accident; making and implementing recommendations to prevent a

recurrence of the accident and ensuring feedback is provided to the workforce;

collecting evidence to be used in any possible litigation following the accident

and managing the provision of information to the media.



51. Outline the immediate & long term actions that should be taken following a serious
accident at work?

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