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TitleProcess Management: Why Project Management Fails in Complex Decision Making Processes
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Table of Contents
Process Management: Why Project Management Fails in Complex Decision Making Processes - Second edition
Table of Contents
1 Introduction: Process and Content
	1.2…The Process Approach to Change: a Preliminary Description
		1.2.1 Agreements About the Rules that the Parties will use to Reach a Decision
		1.2.2 The Process Manager and the Process Architect
	1.3…Structure of this Book
Part I Introduction to Process Design
and Process Management
	2 Positioning the Process Approach
		2.1…Introduction: From Deal to Process
		2.2…Positioning Process Management
		2.3…Process Management Versus Substance
			2.3.1 From Objective to Authoritative: Negotiated Knowledge
		2.4…Process Management Versus Command and Control
		2.5…Process Management Versus Project Management
			2.5.1 Dynamics
			2.5.2 Compensation of Losers, and Coupling
			2.5.3 Solution Seeks Problem
			2.5.4 Blocking Power Towards the End of the Decision-Making Process
			2.5.5 Strategic Behaviour
		2.6…Process Management Versus Structure
		2.7…The Main Arguments for Process Management
			2.7.1 Reducing Substantive Uncertainty
			2.7.2 Enriching Problem Definitions and Solutions
			2.7.3 Incorporating Dynamics
			2.7.4 Transparency in Decision Making
			2.7.5 De-politicizing Decision Making
			2.7.6 Support
		2.8…The Result of a Process: Consensus, Commitment or Tolerance
		2.9…The Risks of a Process Approach
		2.10…Further Observations About Processes
			2.10.1 Change Time Perspective Scope Scale Population Versus ‘Delta’ Perspective
			2.10.2 Negotiation and Change
			2.10.3 Deciding and Implementing
			2.10.4 Process and Procedure
		2.11…Process Management and Related Approaches
			2.11.1 Procedural Rationality Process as a Rational Design or as a Result of Negotiation
			2.11.2 Consensus Building and Mediating Process Management is Embedded Both Institutionally and Administratively
			2.11.3 Interactive Decision Making Process Management is Administratively Oriented
Part II
Process Architecture
	3 Designing a Process
		3.2…The Four Core Elements of a Process Design
		3.3…Design Principles Leading to Open Decision Making
			3.3.1 Party Involvement: all Relevant Parties should be Involved
			3.3.2 Process Agreements as a Means to Make Substantive Choices
			3.3.3 Transparency of Both Process Design and Process Management
		3.4…Design Principles that Protect Parties’ Safety and Core Values
			3.4.1 Protecting Parties’ Core Values
			3.4.2 Commitment to the Process Rather than to the Result
			3.4.3 Commitments to Subdecisions may be Postponed
			3.4.4 There are Exit Rules
		3.5…Design Principles that Guarantee Progress
			3.5.1 Stimulate ‘Early Participation’ Early Baseline Date [24] Voluntary Action Plan [24]
			3.5.2 The Prospect of Gain as an Incentive for Cooperative Behaviour
			3.5.3 Creating ‘Quick Wins’
			3.5.4 Ensure that the Process is Heavily Staffed
			3.5.5 Transferring Conflicts to the Periphery of the Process
			3.5.6 Tolerance Towards Ambiguity
			3.5.7 Using Options for Command and Control Created by the Process
		3.6…Design Principles that Guarantee the Substance of the Process
			3.6.1 The Roles of Experts and Stakeholders are Both Bundled and Unbundled
			3.6.2 From Substantive Variety to Selection
			3.6.3 The Role of Expertise in the Process
	4 The Process Architect in Action: Making a Process Design
		4.2…The Process Design as a Result of Negotiation
		4.3…The Need for a Sense of Urgency
		4.4…The Process Architect in Action: Designing a Process
			4.4.1 Exploring the Problem Together with the Commissioning Party
			4.4.2 Actor Scan Views, Interests and Core Values Risks and Opportunities Incentives and Disincentives Pluriformity An Actor Scan is a Continuous Activity
			4.4.3 Quick Scan Configurations
			4.4.4 Scan of the Substantive Couplings, and the Initial Agenda Converting Issues and Interests into Dilemmas and ‘Dilemma Sharing’
			4.4.5 Substantive Dilemmas and Establishing the Agenda Resolving the Dilemma by Synthesis Pilot Option Mothball Variant Developing Options in Parallel Growth Model Removing the Cause of the Conflict by Addressing the Underlying Question Designing Mitigating and/or Compensating Measures
			4.4.6 Process Dilemmas and Establishment of the Rules of the Game Accuracy Versus Speed Many or Few Parties Confidential Versus Public
			4.4.7 Testing the Process Design Prima Facie Test Simulation
			4.4.8 Participation Involved in Designing the Process, or Not? Right of Consent with Respective Appointments? Direct or Indirect Representation?
Part III
Managing the Process
	5 An Open Process
		5.2…Involving Parties in the Decision Making
			5.2.1 Controlling a Process Openness of the Agenda The Tension Between Openness and the Need for Control
			5.2.2 The Unrecognizability of Actors, Interests and Resources
			5.2.3 Parties’ Refusal to Participate
		5.3…The Transformation from Substance to Process
			5.3.1 Conditions for a Transformation from Substance to Process
			5.3.2 Ambiguity
			5.3.3 Frameworks and Crystallization Points
		5.4…Process and Process Management are Characterized by Transparency and Openness
			5.4.1 The Roles of the Process Manager: Dependent and Independent Naming and Framing Using Events Outside of the Process as Policy Windows Playing with Tight and Loose Couplings Entering into Moderate Conflicts with Parties that have No Exit Options Bypasses Controlling External Support
			5.4.2 The Progress of the Process has an Independent Valuehellip hellip Because Processes Result in Unfreezing hellip Because There Will be Relations and Opportunities for Gain hellip Because the Cost of an Exit Option Will Go Up hellip Because There is Less Potential for Starting a Conflict hellip Because Outsiders’ Expectations are an Incentive for Cooperative Behaviour
	6 A Safe Process: Protecting Core Values
		6.2…Protecting Core Values
		6.3…Commitment to the Process and to the Result
			6.3.1 Commitment to the Process Rather than to the Result
			6.3.2 Offering Room to the Parties Shape the Process in such a way that this Room is Used as Little as Possible
			6.3.3 Example: Process Management and the Core Value of Political Accountability
			6.3.4 The Position of the Initiator The Process Should Do the Work
			6.3.5 Incompatibility and Opportunistic Use of Core Values
		6.4…Postponing Commitments During the Processhellip
			6.4.1 hellip Reduces the Decision-Making Costs
			6.4.2 hellip Offers Possibilities for Dealing with the Decision-Making Dynamics
			6.4.3 hellip Offers Possibilities for Building Mutual Trust
			6.4.4 hellip Stimulates Learning Processes
			6.4.5 hellip Takes the Pressure Off the Decision Making
		6.5…The Exit Rules of the Process
			6.5.1 The Participation Paradox: An Exit Option may be Appealing
			6.5.2 Threatening to Leave: Double Binds for the Process Manager An imminent exit can hardly be managed: it is up to others to do this
	7 A Process with Sufficient Speed: Incentives for Progress
		7.2…Incentives for Cooperative Behaviour
			7.2.1 Architecture of the Agenda: A Balance Between Productive and Obstructive Power
			7.2.2 Planning of Activities Incremental Planning Sequential Planning of Activities Parallel Planning of Activities Intervention by a Third Party: Assigning Multiple Dimensions, or Reframing
			7.2.3 Repeated Opportunities to Realize One’s Own Interests
		7.3…The Process is Heavily Staffed
			7.3.1 Heavy Staffing Creates Opportunities for Gain and Incentives for Cooperative Behaviour
		7.4…Quick Wins
			7.4.1 The Threat of a Low Product/Time Ratio
		7.5…Conflicts are Transferred to the Periphery of the Process
		7.6…Command and Control: Both a Driver and a Result of the Process
			7.6.1 Power
			7.6.2 Competition
			7.6.3 Cooperation
	8 The Process Manager and the Substance of Decision Making
		8.2…Bundling and Unbundling of Experts and Stakeholders
			8.2.1 Four Roles for Experts in the Process
			8.2.2 Embedding Experts in the Process
			8.2.3 Unbundling of Roles, hellip
			8.2.4 hellip Followed by a Bundling of Activities
			8.2.5 Improving the Quality of the Decision Making
			8.2.6 Improving the Quality of the Submitted Knowledge
			8.2.7 Research and Decision Making: Parallel Connection and Proper Bundling
		8.3…Intermezzo: Strategic Behaviour, or Fair and Substantive Behaviour?
			8.3.1 Substance Depends on Interest; the Realization of Interests Depends on Strategic Behaviour
			8.3.2 The Distinction Between Substance and Strategic Behaviour is Debatable
		8.4…Moving from Substantive Variety to Selection
			8.4.1 The Transition from Variety to Selection
			8.4.2 The Substantive Expertise of the Process Manager
	9 A Concluding Remark

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