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TitleSolar Energy Utilization in the United States
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Table of Contents
                            Solar Energy Utilizationin the United States
Professional Experience
Earth Climate: A global solar power plantFuel source: ~ 240 W/m2 solar flux (average annual)
CAISO (2/16/2013)
CAISO (2/16/2013)
CA Renewable Portfolio Standard33% by 2020
California Solar Energy Potential
Electric Net Summer Capacity ( x1000 MW)Total (All Sectors), 2011 values (EIA, Annual Energy Review 2011)
Solar vs. Conventional Power Plant: similarities/differences
Existing Capacity by Energy Source (MW), EIA 2011
Slide Number 11
U.S. Photovoltaic Solar Resource
Capacity FactorCF= (Actual annual output energy/name plate power at 8760 hr)
Utility‐Scale Solar Projects in the United States(SEIA Nov 2012)
Incoming Solar Energy
Sun at 5670 K (visible): Earth at 255 K (IR) (effective temp)Radiation balance between two black bodies
Solar Energy Utilization: CSP vs. PV
Theoretic limits of photovoltaic cells(source: DOE basic research needs (2005)
Solar Cells Thermodynamic efficiencies(black body approximation)
BrightSource Ivanpah, CA (3 x 123 MW)
Ivanpah Solar Plant Key Data
Ivanpah CSP: Power Block
Heliostat Field/BSE CSP(Negev, Israel, test facility <10 MW)
CSP: Power Tower
(Rocketdyne) Molten Salt Technology (cycle diagram)
SolarReserve Power Tower 150 MW Rice Project, CA(approved by CEC for construction Feb 2012)
CVSR/ SunPower 250 MW (CA)
CVSR/ Plant Key DataSan Luis Obispo, CA
CVSR/ Oasis power block (partial view of 1 MW)
SunPower E 20 module, 327 Wp
Solar Cell: Current-Voltage Map
Power profile: PV Power Plant
Nevada Solar-1/CSP/(64 MW)Source: Acciona
PV power plant operation (100 kWp)
Intermittency: La Ola PV System, HI (1.3  MW)Sandia Report: Energy Storage, 11/2011
Dealing with intermittency:Energy (thermal) storage concepts/technologies
PV variable generation (MW /min)Source: SEPA 02-08, , Hoff-Perez
CSP: Tracking Collector Trough
Nevada Solar-1: 65 MW  (400 acres)Built 2007 (Boulder City, NV)
Energy ConversionEfficiency Cascades: CSP Representative & Rough
Andasol 1-2, 50 MW, SpainSolar Millennium AG
Thermal Storage source: Solar Millennium/Andasol
Amonix CPV modules/53 kWAlamosa 30 MW CPV plant, CO
Amonix CPV (500 x SUN)
Slide Number 45
Concentrated PV: SP C7tracker module (mono-Si, 20.1%, (108 x 138W) @C7, 14.7kWp)
PV vs. CPV (energy yield)Normal production operating hours
Thermo-photovoltaic power (MIT TPV)
Other Solar Technologies that were put on hold…
Blythe Solar Power Project Site (4 blocks of 250 MW each), Blythe, CA
Heliotrough Parabolic Collector Assembly (Kramer Junction Solar Power Plant)
Bythe-1: 3D Model Power Block Area
Blythe Solar Power Plant Process Flow Diagram
Blythe-1 Solar Field Key Design Data
Heliotrough parabolic trough collector(~ 2.3 MW th at design point condition)
Heliotrough being set on its support pylons
Inherent challenges in CSP solar technology
PV power plant equivalent circuitUtility Scale PV plant/topology
Grid integration of solar power projects:
Cost of Installed Power levelized cost of electricity (B&V 2012)
DOE Cost reduction target 2015$1/Wp work shop summary
Projections for levelized cost of electricitySource: Stefan Reichelstein (2012)
Commercialization:Viability to Bankability
Solar Project Development
Solar Energy & Water Use

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