Download The Manga Guide to Microprocessors PDF

TitleThe Manga Guide to Microprocessors
File Size25.5 MB
Total Pages269
Table of Contents
                            Cover
Title Page
Copyright Page
Contents
Preface
Chapter 1: What Does the CPU Do?
	Computers Can Process Any Type of Information
	The CPU Is the Core of Each Computer
	The Five Components of a Modern Computer
	ALUs: The CPU’s Core
	CPUs Process Operations and Make Decisions
	What Is Information Anyway?
	The Difference Between Analog and Digital Information
Chapter 2: Digital Operations
	The Computer’s World Is Binary
		The Reciprocal States of 1 and 0
		Decimal vs. Binary Number systems
		Expressing Numbers in Binary
		Fixed-Point and Floating-Point Fractions
		Addition and Subtraction in Binary
	What Are Logical Operations?
		Integrated Circuits Contain Logic Gates
		The Three Basic Logic Gates: AND, OR, and NOT
		Truth Tables and Venn Diagrams
		A Summary of the AND, OR, and NOT Gates
		Other Basic Gates: NAND, NOR, and XOR
		A Summary of the NAND, NOR, and XOR Gates
		De Morgan’s Laws
	Circuits That Perform Arithmetic
		The Addition Circuit
		The Half Adder
		The Full Adder and Ripple Carry Adder
		The Carry Look-ahead Adder
	Circuits That Remember
		Circuits with Memory Are a Necessity!
		Flip-flop: the Basics of Memory Circuits
		The RS Flip-flop
		The D Flip-flop and the Clock
		The T Flip-flop and Counters
	Modern Circuit Design: CAD and FPGA
Chapter 3: CPU Architecture
	All About Memory and the CPU
		Memory Has Assigned Addresses
		Data Passes Through the Bus
		Bus Width and Bits
		R/W Signals and I/O Signals
		Instructions Are Made of Operands and Opcodes
	Accumulators and Other Registers Are Used in Operations
	CPU Instruction Processing
		Classic CPU Architecture
		The Instruction Cycle
		The Instruction We Process Changes Depending on the Program Counter
	All Kinds of Memory Devices
		A Comparison Between HDD and Memory
		RAM Space, ROM Space, and I/O Space
	What Are Interrupts?
		Interrupts Are Useful
		The Stack and the Stack Pointer
		Interrupt Priority
	Memory Classifications
	I/O Ports and the GPU
	Clock Frequency and Degrees of Accuracy
	Clock Generators
	Timer Interrupts
	Reset Signals
	CPU Performance Is Measured in FLOPS
Chapter 4: Operations
	Types of Operations
		There Are Many Types of Instructions
		Instructions for Arithmetic and Logic Operations
		What Are Bit Shifts?
		The Sign Bit Lets Us Express Negative Binary Numbers
		Logical Shifts and Arithmetic Shifts
		Circular Shifts (Rotating Shifts)
		Data Transfer Operations
		Input/Output Instructions
		Branch Instructions
		Condition Evaluation and Status Flags
		Putting Branches and Condition Evaluation Together
	Operand Types
		How Many Operands Do We Have?
		Operands Take Many Forms
		Immediate Value Processing
		Address References
		What Are Addressing Modes?
		Addressing Mode Overview
	The Structure of Operations in the ALU
		A Look Inside the ALU
	Serial Transmission and Parallel Transmission
	An Overview of Some Basic Registers
	An Overview of Some Basic Status Flags
	The Sleep Instruction
Chapter 5: Programs
	Assembly and High-Level Languages
		What Are Assembly Languages?
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	Program Basics
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	Where are Programs Stored?
	What Happens Before a Program Is Executed?
Chapter 6: Microcontrollers
	What Are Microcontrollers?
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	What Are DSPs?
	DSPs and Multiplier-Accumulate Operations
	Microcontrollers in Industrial Machines
Epilogue
Afterword
Index
Back Cover
                        

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