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TitleThe TCP/IP Guide: A Comprehensive, Illustrated Internet Protocols Reference
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Table of Contents
                            THE TCP/IP GUIDE
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
INTRODUCTION
	Goals of The TCP/IP Guide
	Scope of The TCP/IP Guide
	The TCP/IP Guide Features
	The TCP/IP Guide Online!
	Your Feedback and Suggestions
I-1. NETWORKING FUNDAMENTALS
	1. NETWORKING INTRODUCTION, CHARACTERISTICS, AND TYPES
		Introduction to Networking
			What Is Networking?
			The Advantages and Benefits of Networking
			The Disadvantages and Costs of Networking
		Fundamental Network Characteristics
			Networking Layers, Models, and Architectures
			Protocols: What Are They, Anyway?
			Circuit-Switching and Packet-Switching Networks
				Circuit Switching
				Packet Switching
				Which Switching Method to Choose?
			Connection-Oriented and Connectionless Protocols
		Messages: Packets, Frames, Datagrams, and Cells
			Message Formatting: Headers, Payloads, and Footers
			Message Addressing and Transmission Methods: Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast
		Network Structural Models and Client-Server and Peer-to-Peer Networking
		Types and Sizes of Networks
		Segments, Networks, Subnetworks, and Internetworks
		The Internet, Intranets, and Extranets
	2. NETWORK PERFORMANCE ISSUES AND CONCEPTS
		Putting Network Performance in Perspective
		Balancing Network Performance with Key Nonperformance Characteristics
		Performance Measurements: Speed, Bandwidth, Throughput, and Latency
			Speed
			Bandwidth
			Throughput
			Latency
			Summary of Performance Measurements
		Understanding Performance Measurement Units
			Bits and Bytes
			Baud
		Theoretical and Real-World Throughput, and Factors Affecting Network Performance
			Normal Network Overhead
			External Performance Limiters
			Network Configuration Problems
			Asymmetry
		Simplex, Full-Duplex, and Half-Duplex Operation
			Simplex Operation
			Half-Duplex Operation
			Full-Duplex Operation
		Quality of Service (QoS)
	3. NETWORK STANDARDS AND STANDARDS ORGANIZATIONS
		Proprietary, Open, and De Facto Standards
			Proprietary Standards
			Open Standards
			De Facto Standards
		Networking Standards
		International Networking Standards Organizations
		Networking Industry Groups
		Internet Standards Organizations (ISOC, IAB, IESG, IETF, IRSG, and IRTF)
		Internet Registration Authorities and Registries (IANA, ICANN, APNIC, ARIN, LACNIC, and RIPE NCC)
			Internet Centralized Registration Authorities
			Modern Hierarchy of Registration Authorities
		Internet Standards and the Request for Comment (RFC) Process
			RFC Categories
			The Internet Standardization Process
	4. A REVIEW OF DATA REPRESENTATION AND THE MATHEMATICS OF COMPUTING
		Binary Information and Representation: Bits, Bytes, Nibbles, Octets, and Characters
			Binary Information
			Binary Information Representation and Groups
			Byte Versus Octet
		Decimal, Binary, Octal, and Hexadecimal Numbers
			Binary Numbers and Their Decimal Equivalents
			Making Binary Numbers Easier to Use by Grouping Bits
			Octal Numbers
			Hexadecimal Numbers
		Decimal, Binary, Octal, and Hexadecimal Number Conversion
			Binary, Octal, and Hexadecimal Conversions
			Conversion from Binary, Octal, or Hexadecimal to Decimal
			Conversion from Decimal to Binary, Octal, or Hexadecimal
				Conversion from Decimal to Binary
				Conversion from Decimal to Octal or Hexadecimal
		Binary, Octal, and Hexadecimal Arithmetic
			Binary Arithmetic
			Octal and Hexadecimal Arithmetic
		Boolean Logic and Logical Functions
			Boolean Logical Functions
				NOT
				AND and OR
				Exclusive-OR (XOR or EOR)
			Combining Boolean Expressions
		Bit Masking (Setting, Clearing, and Inverting) Using Boolean Logical Functions
			Setting Groups of Bits with OR
			Clearing Bits with AND
			Inverting Bits with XOR
I-2. THE OPEN SYSTEMS INTERCONNECTION (OSI) REFERENCE MODEL
	5. GENERAL OSI REFERENCE MODEL ISSUES AND CONCEPTS
		History of the OSI Reference Model
		General Reference Model Issues
			The Benefits of Networking Models
			Why Understanding the OSI Reference Model Is Important to You
			How to Use the OSI Reference Model
			Other Network Architectures and Protocol Stacks
		Key OSI Reference Model Concepts
			OSI Reference Model Networking Layers, Sublayers, and Layer Groupings
			"N" Notation and Other OSI Model Layer Terminology
			Interfaces: Vertical (Adjacent Layer) Communication
			Protocols: Horizontal (Corresponding Layer) Communication
			Data Encapsulation, Protocol Data Units (PDUs), and Service Data Units (SDUs)
			Indirect Device Connection and Message Routing
	6. OSI REFERENCE MODEL LAYERS
		Physical Layer (Layer 1)
		Data Link Layer (Layer 2)
		Network Layer (Layer 3)
		Transport Layer (Layer 4)
		Session Layer (Layer 5)
		Presentation Layer (Layer 6)
		Application Layer (Layer 7)
	7. OSI REFERENCE MODEL SUMMARY
		Understanding the OSI Model: An Analogy
		Remembering the OSI Model Layers: Some Mnemonics
		Summarizing the OSI Model Layers: A Summary Chart
I-3. TCP/IP PROTOCOL SUITE AND ARCHITECTURE
	8. TCP/IP PROTOCOL SUITE AND ARCHITECTURE
		TCP/IP Overview and History
			TCP/IP History and Development
			Important Factors in the Success of TCP/IP
		TCP/IP Services
		The TCP/IP Client/Server Structural Model
			Hardware and Software Roles
			Transactional Roles
		TCP/IP Architecture and the TCP/IP Model
			Network Interface Layer
			Internet Layer
			Host-to-Host Transport Layer
			Application Layer
		TCP/IP Protocols
II-1. TCP/IP NETWORK INTERFACE LAYER PROTOCOLS
	9. TCP/IP SERIAL LINE INTERNET PROTOCOL (SLIP) AND POINT-TO-POINT PROTOCOL (PPP) OVERVIEW AND FUNDAMENTALS
		SLIP versus PPP
		Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP)
			SLIP Data Framing Method and General Operation
			Problems and Limitations of SLIP
		Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) Overview and Fundamentals
			Development and Standardization
			Function and Architecture
			Advantages and Benefits
			PPP Main Components
			PPP Functional Groups
			General Operation
			PPP Link Setup and Phases
				Link Dead Phase
				Link Establishment Phase
				Authentication Phase
				Network Layer Protocol Phase
				Link Open Phase
				Link Termination Phase
			PPP Standards
	10. PPP CORE PROTOCOLS: LINK CONTROL, NETWORK CONTROL, AND AUTHENTICATION
		Link Control Protocol (LCP)
			LCP Packets
			LCP Link Configuration
			LCP Link Maintenance
			LCP Link Termination
			Other LCP Messages
		The Network Control Protocols (IPCP, IPXCP, NBFCP, and Others)
			Operation of NCPs
			The Internet Protocol Control Protocol (IPCP): An Example NCP
		PPP Authentication Protocols: PAP and CHAP
			PAP
			CHAP
	11. PPP FEATURE PROTOCOLS
		PPP Link Quality Monitoring and Reporting (LQM, LQR)
			LQR Setup
			Using Link Quality Reports
		PPP Compression Control Protocol (CCP) and Compression Algorithms
			CCP Operation: Compression Setup
			CCP Configuration Options and Compression Algorithms
			Compression Algorithm Operation: Compressing and Decompressing Data
		PPP Encryption Control Protocol (ECP) and Encryption Algorithms
			ECP Operation: Encryption Setup
			ECP Configuration Options and Encryption Algorithms
			Encryption Algorithm Operation: Encrypting and Decrypting Data
		PPP Multilink Protocol (MP, MLP, MLPPP)
			PPP Multilink Protocol Architecture
			PPP Multilink Protocol Setup and Configuration
			PPP Multilink Protocol Operation
		PPP Bandwidth Allocation Protocol (BAP) and Bandwidth Allocation Control Protocol (BACP)
			BACP Operation: Configuring the Use of BAP
			BAP Operation: Adding and Removing Links
	12. PPP PROTOCOL FRAME FORMATS
		PPP General Frame Format
			Protocol Field Ranges
			Protocol Field Values
			PPP Field Compression
		PPP General Control Protocol Frame Format and Option Format
			PPP Control Messages and Code Values
			PPP Control Message Option Format
			Summary of PPP Control Message Formatting
		PPP Link Control Protocol (LCP) Frame Formats
		PAP and CHAP Frame Formats
			PPP PAP Control Frame Formats
			PPP CHAP Control Frame Formats
		PPP Multilink Protocol (MP) Frame Format
			PPP MP Frame Fragmentation Process
			PPP MP Fragment Frame Format
			PPP MP Fragmentation Demonstration
II-2. TCP/IP NETWORK INTERFACE/INTERNET LAYER CONNECTION PROTOCOLS
	13. ADDRESS RESOLUTION AND THE TCP/IP ADDRESS RESOLUTION PROTOCOL (ARP)
		Address Resolution Concepts and Issues
			The Need for Address Resolution
				Addressing at Layer 2 and Layer 3
				General Address Resolution Methods
			Address Resolution Through Direct Mapping
				How Direct Mapping Works
				Problems with Direct Mapping
			Dynamic Address Resolution
				How Dynamic Addressing Works
				Dynamic Address Resolution Caching and Efficiency Issues
				Other Enhancements to Dynamic Resolution
		TCP/IP Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
			ARP Address Specification and General Operation
				ARP Message Types and Address Designations
				ARP General Operation
			ARP Message Format
			ARP Caching
				Static and Dynamic ARP Cache Entries
				Cache Entry Expiration
				Other Caching Features
			Proxy ARP
		TCP/IP Address Resolution for IP Multicast Addresses
		TCP/IP Address Resolution for IP Version 6
	14. REVERSE ADDRESS RESOLUTION AND THE TCP/IP REVERSE ADDRESS RESOLUTION PROTOCOL (RARP)
		The Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP)
		RARP General Operation
		Limitations of RARP
II-3. INTERNET PROTOCOL VERSION 4 (IP/IPV4)
	15. INTERNET PROTOCOL VERSIONS, CONCEPTS, AND OVERVIEW
		IP Overview and Key Operational Characteristics
		IP Functions
		IP History, Standards, Versions, and Closely Related Protocols
			IP Versions and Version Numbers
			IP-Related Protocols
	16. IPV4 ADDRESSING CONCEPTS AND ISSUES
		IP Addressing Overview and Fundamentals
			Number of IP Addresses Per Device
			Address Uniqueness and Network Specificity
			Contrasting IP Addresses and Data Link Layer Addresses
			Private and Public IP Network Addresses
			IP Address Configuration and Addressing Types
		IP Address Size, Address Space, and Notation
			IP Address Size and Binary Notation
			IP Address Dotted Decimal Notation
			IP Address Space
		IP Basic Address Structure and Main Components
			Network ID and Host ID
			Location of the Division Between Network ID and Host ID
		IP Addressing Categories and IP Address Adjuncts
			Conventional (Classful) Addressing
			Subnetted Classful Addressing
			Classless Addressing
			Subnet Mask and Default Gateway
		Number of IP Addresses and Multihoming
		IP Address Management and Assignment Methods and Authorities
	17. CLASSFUL (CONVENTIONAL) ADDRESSING
		IP Classful Addressing Overview and Address Classes
			IP Address Classes
			Rationale for Classful Addressing
		IP Classful Addressing Network and Host Identification and Address Ranges
			Classful Addressing Class Determination Algorithm
			Determining Address Class from the First Octet Bit Pattern
		IP Address Class A, B, and C Network and Host Capacities
		IP Addresses with Special Meanings
		IP Reserved, Private, and Loopback Addresses
			Reserved Addresses
			Private, Unregistered, Nonroutable Addresses
			Loopback Addresses
			Reserved, Private, and Loopback Addressing Blocks
		IP Multicast Addressing
			Multicast Address Types and Ranges
			Well-Known Multicast Addresses
		Problems with Classful IP Addressing
	18. IP SUBNET ADDRESSING (SUBNETTING) CONCEPTS
		IP Subnet Addressing Overview, Motivation, and Advantages
		IP Subnetting: Three-Level Hierarchical IP Subnet Addressing
		IP Subnet Masks, Notation, and Subnet Calculations
			Function of the Subnet Mask
			Subnet Mask Notation
			Applying the Subnet Mask: An Example
			Rationale for Subnet Mask Notation
		IP Default Subnet Masks for Address Classes A, B, and C
		IP Custom Subnet Masks
			Deciding How Many Subnet Bits to Use
			Determining the Custom Subnet Mask
			Subtracting Two from the Number of Hosts per Subnet and (Possibly) Subnets per Network
		IP Subnet Identifiers, Subnet Addresses, and Host Addresses
			Subnet Identifiers
			Subnet Addresses
			Host Addresses Within Each Subnet
		IP Subnetting Summary Tables for Class A, Class B, and Class C Networks
		IP Variable Length Subnet Masking (VLSM)
			The Solution: Variable Length Subnet Masking
			Multiple-Level Subnetting Using VLSM
	19. IP SUBNETTING PRACTICAL SUBNET DESIGN AND ADDRESS DETERMINATION EXAMPLE
		IP Subnetting Step 1: Analyzing Requirements
		IP Subnetting Step 2: Partitioning Network Address Host Bits
			Class C Subnetting Design Example
			Class B Subnetting Design Example
		IP Subnetting Step 3: Determining the Custom Subnet Mask
			Calculating the Custom Subnet Mask
				Class C Custom Subnet Mask Calculation Example
				Class B Custom Subnet Mask Calculation Example
			Determining the Custom Subnet Mask Using Subnetting Tables
		IP Subnetting Step 4: Determining Subnet Identifiers and Subnet Addresses
			Class C Subnet ID and Address Determination Example
			Class B Subnet ID and Address Determination Example
			Using Subnet Address Formulas to Calculate Subnet Addresses
		IP Subnetting Step 5: Determining Host Addresses for Each Subnet
			Class C Host Address Determination Example
			Class B Host Address Determination Example
			Shortcuts for Computing Host Addresses
	20. IP CLASSLESS ADDRESSING—CLASSLESS INTER-DOMAIN ROUTING (CIDR)/SUPERNETTING
		IP Classless Addressing and Supernetting Overview
			The Main Problem with Classful Addressing
			The Solution: Eliminate Address Classes
			The Many Benefits of Classless Addressing and Routing
		IP Supernetting: CIDR Hierarchical Addressing and Notation
			CIDR (Slash) Notation
			Supernetting: Subnetting the Internet
			Common Aspects of Classful and Classless Addressing
		IP Classless Addressing Block Sizes and Classful Network Equivalents
		IP CIDR Addressing Example
			First Level of Division
			Second Level of Division
			Third Level of Division
	21. INTERNET PROTOCOL DATAGRAM ENCAPSULATION AND FORMATTING
		IP Datagram Encapsulation
		IP Datagram General Format
			IP Datagram Time to Live (TTL) Field
			IP Datagram Type of Service (TOS) Field
		IP Datagram Options and Option Format
	22. IP DATAGRAM SIZE, FRAGMENTATION, AND REASSEMBLY
		IP Datagram Size, MTU, and Fragmentation Overview
			IP Datagram Size and the Underlying Network Frame Size
			MTU and Datagram Fragmentation
			Multiple-Stage Fragmentation
			Internet Minimum MTU: 576 Bytes
			MTU Path Discovery
		IP Message Fragmentation Process
			The IP Fragmentation Process
			Fragmentation-Related IP Datagram Header Fields
		IP Message Reassembly
	23. IP ROUTING AND MULTICASTING
		IP Datagram Delivery
			Direct Datagram Delivery
			Indirect Datagram Delivery (Routing)
			The Relationship Between Datagram Routing and Addressing
		IP Routing Concepts and the Process of Next-Hop Routing
		IP Routes and Routing Tables
		IP Routing in a Subnet or Classless Addressing (CIDR) Environment
		IP Multicasting
			Multicast Addressing
			Multicast Group Management
			Multicast Datagram Processing and Routing
II-4. INTERNET PROTOCOL VERSION 6 (IPV6)
	24. IPV6 OVERVIEW, CHANGES, AND TRANSITION
		IPv6 Motivation and Overview
			IPv6 Standards
			Design Goals of IPv6
		Major Changes and Additions in IPv6
		Transition from IPv4 to IPv6
			IPv4 to IPv6 Transition: Differences of Opinion
			IPv4 to IPv6 Transition Methods
	25. IPV6 ADDRESSING
		IPv6 Addressing Overview: Addressing Model, Address Types, and Address Size
			IPv6 Addressing Model Characteristics
			IPv6 Supported Address Types
			IPv6 Address Size and Address Space
		IPv6 Address and Address Notation and Prefix Representation
			IPv6 Address Hexadecimal Notation
			Zero Compression in IPv6 Addresses
			IPv6 Mixed Notation
			IPv6 Address Prefix Length Representation
		IPv6 Address Space Allocation
		IPv6 Global Unicast Address Format
			Rationale for a Structured Unicast Address Block
			Generic Division of the Unicast Address Space
			IPv6 Implementation of the Unicast Address Space
			Original Division of the Global Routing Prefix: Aggregators
			A Sample Division of the Global Routing Prefix into Levels
		IPv6 Interface Identifiers and Physical Address Mapping
		IPv6 Special Addresses: Reserved, Private, Unspecified, and Loopback
			Special Address Types
			IPv6 Private Addresses Type Scopes
		IPv6/IPv4 Address Embedding
		IPv6 Multicast and Anycast Addressing
			IPv6 Multicast Addresses
				Multicast Scopes
				Well-Known Multicast Addresses
				Solicited-Node Multicast Addresses
			IPv6 Anycast Addresses
		IPv6 Autoconfiguration and Renumbering
			IPv6 Stateless Autoconfiguration
			IPv6 Device Renumbering
	26. IPV6 DATAGRAM ENCAPSULATION AND FORMATTING
		IPv6 Datagram Overview and General Structure
		IPv6 Datagram Main Header Format
			IPv6 Next Header Field
			Key Changes to the Main Header Between IPv4 and IPv6
		IPv6 Datagram Extension Headers
			IPv6 Header Chaining Using the Next Header Field
			Summary of IPv6 Extension Headers
			IPv6 Routing Extension Header
			IPv6 Fragment Extension Header
			IPv6 Extension Header Order
		IPv6 Datagram Options
	27. IPV6 DATAGRAM SIZE, FRAGMENTATION, REASSEMBLY, AND ROUTING
		Overview of IPv6 Datagram Sizing and Fragmentation
		Implications of IPv6's Source-Only Fragmentation Rule
		The IPv6 Fragmentation Process
		IPv6 Datagram Delivery and Routing
II-5. IP-RELATED FEATURE PROTOCOLS
	28. IP NETWORK ADDRESS TRANSLATION (NAT) PROTOCOL
		IP NAT Overview
			Advantages of IP NAT
			Disadvantages of IP NAT
		IP NAT Address Terminology
		IP NAT Static and Dynamic Address Mappings
			Static Mappings
			Dynamic Mappings
			Choosing Between Static and Dynamic Mapping
		IP NAT Unidirectional (Traditional/Outbound) Operation
		IP NAT Bidirectional (Two-Way/Inbound) Operation
		IP NAT Port-Based (Overloaded) Operation
		IP NAT Overlapping/Twice NAT Operation
		IP NAT Compatibility Issues and Special Handling Requirements
	29. IP SECURITY (IPSEC) PROTOCOLS
		IPsec Overview, History, and Standards
			Overview of IPsec Services and Functions
			IPsec Standards
		IPsec General Operation, Components, and Protocols
			IPsec Core Protocols
			IPsec Support Components
		IPsec Architectures and Implementation Methods
			Integrated Architecture
			Bump in the Stack (BITS) Architecture
			Bump in the Wire (BITW) Architecture
		IPsec Modes: Transport and Tunnel
			Transport Mode
			Tunnel Mode
			Comparing Transport and Tunnel Modes
		IPsec Security Constructs
			Security Policies, Security Associations, and Associated Databases
			Selectors
			Security Association Triples and Security Parameter Index (SPI)
		IPsec Authentication Header (AH)
			AH Datagram Placement and Linking
				IPv6 AH Placement and Linking
				IPv4 AH Placement and Linking
			AH Format
		IPsec Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)
			ESP Fields
			ESP Operations and Field Use
				Header Calculation and Placement
				Trailer Calculation and Placement
				ESP Authentication Field Calculation and Placement
			ESP Format
		IPsec Internet Key Exchange (IKE)
			IKE Overview
			IKE Operation
	30. INTERNET PROTOCOL MOBILITY SUPPORT (MOBILE IP)
		Mobile IP Overview, History, and Motivation
			The Problem with Mobile Nodes in TCP/IP
			The Solution: Mobile IP
			Limitations of Mobile IP
		Mobile IP Concepts and General Operation
			Mobile IP Device Roles
			Mobile IP Functions
		Mobile IP Addressing: Home and Care-Of Addresses
			Foreign Agent Care-Of Address
			Co-Located Care-Of Address
			Advantages and Disadvantages of the Care-Of Address Types
		Mobile IP Agent Discovery
			Agent Discovery Process
			Agent Advertisement and Agent Solicitation Messages
				Agent Solicitation Message Format
				Agent Advertisement Message Format
		Mobile IP Home Agent Registration and Registration Messages
			Mobile Node Registration Events
			Registration Request and Registration Reply Messages
			Registration Process
			Registration Request Message Format
			Registration Reply Message Format
		Mobile IP Data Encapsulation and Tunneling
			Mobile IP Conventional Tunneling
			Mobile IP Reverse Tunneling
		Mobile IP and TCP/IP Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) Operation
		Mobile IP Efficiency Issues
		Mobile IP Security Considerations
II-6. IP SUPPORT PROTOCOLS
	31. ICMP CONCEPTS AND GENERAL OPERATION
		ICMP Overview, History, Versions, and Standards
		ICMP General Operation
			The ICMP Message-Passing Service
			ICMP Error Reporting Limited to the Datagram Source
		ICMP Message Classes, Types, and Codes
			ICMP Message Classes
			ICMP Message Types
			ICMP Message Codes
			ICMP Message Class and Type Summary
		ICMP Message Creation and Processing Conventions and Rules
			Limitations on ICMP Message Responses
			ICMP Message Processing Conventions
		ICMP Common Message Format and Data Encapsulation
			ICMP Common Message Format
			Original Datagram Inclusion in ICMP Error Messages
			ICMP Data Encapsulation
	32. ICMPV4 ERROR MESSAGE TYPES AND FORMATS
		ICMPv4 Destination Unreachable Messages
			ICMPv4 Destination Unreachable Message Format
			ICMPv4 Destination Unreachable Message Subtypes
			Interpretation of Destination Unreachable Messages
		ICMPv4 Source Quench Messages
			ICMPv4 Source Quench Message Format
			Problems with Source Quench Messages
		ICMPv4 Time Exceeded Messages
			ICMPv4 Time Exceeded Message Format
			Applications of Time Exceeded Messages
		ICMPv4 Redirect Messages
			ICMPv4 Redirect Message Format
			Redirect Message Interpretation Codes
			Limitations of Redirect Messages
		ICMPv4 Parameter Problem Messages
			ICMPv4 Parameter Problem Message Format
			Parameter Problem Message Interpretation Codes and the Pointer Field
	33. ICMPV4 INFORMATIONAL MESSAGE TYPES AND FORMATS
		ICMPv4 Echo (Request) and Echo Reply Messages
			ICMPv4 Echo and Echo Reply Message Format
			Application of Echo and Echo Reply Messages
		ICMPv4 Timestamp (Request) and Timestamp Reply Messages
			ICMPv4 Timestamp and Timestamp Reply Message Format
			Issues Using Timestamp and Timestamp Reply Messages
		ICMPv4 Router Advertisement and Router Solicitation Messages
			The Router Discovery Process
			ICMPv4 Router Advertisement Message Format
			ICMPv4 Router Solicitation Message Format
			Addressing and Use of Router Advertisement and Router Solicitation Messages
		ICMPv4 Address Mask Request and Reply Messages
			ICMPv4 Address Mask Request and Address Mask Reply Message Format
			Use of Address Mask Request and Address Mask Reply Messages
		ICMPv4 Traceroute Messages
			ICMPv4 Traceroute Message Format
			Use of Traceroute Messages
	34. ICMPV6 ERROR MESSAGE TYPES AND FORMATS
		ICMPv6 Destination Unreachable Messages
			ICMPv6 Destination Unreachable Message Format
			ICMPv6 Destination Unreachable Message Subtypes
			Processing of Destination Unreachable Messages
		ICMPv6 Packet Too Big Messages
			ICMPv6 Packet Too Big Message Format
			Applications of Packet Too Big Messages
		ICMPv6 Time Exceeded Messages
			ICMPv6 Time Exceeded Message Format
			Applications of Time Exceeded Messages
		ICMPv6 Parameter Problem Messages
			ICMPv6 Parameter Problem Message Format
			Parameter Problem Message Interpretation Codes and the Pointer Field
	35. ICMPV6 INFORMATIONAL MESSAGE TYPES AND FORMATS
		ICMPv6 Echo Request and Echo Reply Messages
			ICMPv6 Echo and Echo Reply Message Format
			Application of Echo and Echo Reply Messages
		ICMPv6 Router Advertisement and Router Solicitation Messages
			ICMPv6 Router Advertisement Message Format
			ICMPv6 Router Solicitation Message Format
			Addressing of Router Advertisement and Router Solicitation Messages
		ICMPv6 Neighbor Advertisement and Neighbor Solicitation Messages
			ICMPv6 Neighbor Advertisement Message Format
			ICMPv6 Neighbor Solicitation Message Format
			Addressing of Neighbor Advertisement and Neighbor Solicitation Messages
		ICMPv6 Redirect Messages
			ICMPv6 Redirect Message Format
			Application of Redirect Messages
		ICMPv6 Router Renumbering Messages
			IPv6 Router Renumbering
			ICMPv6 Router Renumbering Message Format
			Addressing of Router Renumbering Messages
		ICMPv6 Informational Message Options
			Source Link-Layer Address Option Format
			Target Link-Layer Address Option Format
			Prefix Information Option Format
			Redirected Header Option Format
			MTU Option Format
	36. IPV6 NEIGHBOR DISCOVERY (ND) PROTOCOL
		IPv6 ND Overview
			Formalizing Local Network Functions: The Neighbor Concept
			Neighbor Discovery Standards
		IPv6 ND General Operational Overview
			Host-Router Discovery Functions
			Host-Host Communication Functions
			Redirect Function
			Relationships Between Functions
			ICMPv6 Messages Used by ND
		IPv6 ND Functions Compared to Equivalent IPv4 Functions
		IPv6 ND Host-Router Discovery Functions
			Host-Router Discovery Functions Performed by Routers
			Host-Router Discovery Functions Performed by Hosts
		IPv6 ND Host-Host Communication Functions
			Next-Hop Determination
			Address Resolution
			Updating Neighbors Using Neighbor Advertisement Messages
			Neighbor Unreachability Detection and the Neighbor Cache
			Duplicate Address Detection
		IPv6 ND Redirect Function
II-7. TCP/IP ROUTING PROTOCOLS (GATEWAY PROTOCOLS)
	37. OVERVIEW OF KEY ROUTING PROTOCOL CONCEPTS
		Routing Protocol Architectures
			Core Architecture
			Autonomous System (AS) Architecture
			Modern Protocol Types: Interior and Exterior Routing Protocols
		Routing Protocol Algorithms and Metrics
			Distance-Vector (Bellman-Ford) Routing Protocol Algorithm
			Link-State (Shortest-Path First) Routing Protocol Algorithm
			Hybrid Routing Protocol Algorithms
		Static and Dynamic Routing Protocols
	38. ROUTING INFORMATION PROTOCOL (RIP, RIP-2, AND RIPNG)
		RIP Overview
			RIP Standardization
			RIP Operational Overview, Advantages, and Limitations
			Development of RIP Version 2 (RIP-2) and RIPng for IPv6
		RIP Route Determination Algorithm and Metric
			RIP Routing Information and Route Distance Metric
			RIP Route Determination Algorithm
			RIP Route Determination and Information Propagation
			Default Routes
		RIP General Operation, Messaging, and Timers
			RIP Messages and Basic Message Types
			RIP Update Messaging and the 30-Second Timer
			Preventing Stale Information: The Timeout Timer
			Removing Stale Information: The Garbage-Collection Timer
			Triggered Updates
		RIP Problems and Some Resolutions
			Issues with RIP's Algorithm
				Slow Convergence
				Routing Loops
				Counting to Infinity
				Small Infinity
			Issues with RIP's Metric
			RIP Special Features for Resolving RIP Algorithm Problems
				Split Horizon
				Split Horizon with Poisoned Reverse
				Triggered Updates
				Hold Down
		RIP Version-Specific Message Formats and Features
			RIP Version 1 (RIP-1) Message Format and Features
				RIP-1 Messaging
				RIP-1 Message Format
				RIP-1 Version-Specific Features
			RIP Version 2 (RIP-2) Message Format and Features
				RIP-2 Version-Specific Features
				RIP-2 Messaging
				RIP-2 Message Format
			RIPng (RIPv6) Message Format and Features
				RIPng Version-Specific Features
				RIPng Messaging
				RIPng Message Format
	39. OPEN SHORTEST PATH FIRST (OSPF)
		OSPF Overview
			Development and Standardization of OSPF
			Overview of OSPF Operation
			OSPF Features and Drawbacks
		OSPF Basic Topology and the Link-State Database (LSDB)
			OSPF Basic Topology
			LSDB Information Storage and Propagation
		OSPF Hierarchical Topology
			OSPF Areas
			Router Roles in OSPF Hierarchical Topology
		OSPF Route Determination Using SPF Trees
			The SPF Tree
			OSPF Route Determination
				First Level
				Second Level
				Third Level
		OSPF General Operation
			OSPF Message Types
			OSPF Messaging
			OSPF Message Authentication
		OSPF Message Formats
			OSPF Common Header Format
			OSPF Hello Message Format
			OSPF Database Description Message Format
			OSPF Link State Request Message Format
			OSPF Link State Update Message Format
			OSPF Link State Acknowledgment Message Format
			OSPF Link State Advertisements and the LSA Header Format
	40. BORDER GATEWAY PROTOCOL (BGP/BGP-4)
		BGP Overview
			BGP Versions and Defining Standards
			Overview of BGP Functions and Features
		BGP Topology
			BGP Speakers, Router Roles, Neighbors, and Peers
			BGP AS Types, Traffic Flows, and Routing Policies
				BGP Traffic Flow and Traffic Types
				BGP AS Types
				BGP AS Routing Policies
				Issues with Routing Policies and Internetwork Design
		BGP Route Storage and Advertisement
			BGP Route Information Management Functions
			BGP Routing Information Bases (RIBs)
		BGP Path Attributes and Algorithm Overview
			BGP Path Attribute Classes
			BGP Path Attribute Characteristics
		BGP Route Determination and the BGP Decision Process
			BGP Decision Process Phases
			Criteria for Assigning Preferences to Routes
			Limitations on BGP's Ability to Select Efficient Routes
			Originating New Routes and Withdrawing Unreachable Routes
		BGP General Operation and Messaging
			Speaker Designation and Connection Establishment
			Route Information Exchange
			Connectivity Maintenance
			Error Reporting
		BGP Detailed Messaging, Operation, and Message Formats
			BGP Message Generation and Transport
			BGP General Message Format
			BGP Connection Establishment: Open Messages
				BGP Open Message Functions
				BGP Open Message Format
			BGP Route Information Exchange: Update Messages
				BGP Update Message Contents
				BGP Update Message Format
			BGP Connectivity Maintenance: Keepalive Messages
				The BGP Keepalive Message Interval
				BGP Keepalive Message Format
			BGP Error Reporting: Notification Messages
				BGP Notification Message Functions
				BGP Notification Message Format
	41. OTHER ROUTING PROTOCOLS
		TCP/IP Gateway-to-Gateway Protocol (GGP)
		The HELLO Protocol (HELLO)
		Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP)
		Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP)
		TCP/IP Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP)
II-8. TCP/IP TRANSPORT LAYER PROTOCOLS
	42. OVERVIEW AND COMPARISON OF TCP AND UDP
		Two Protocols for TCP/IP Transport Layer Requirements
		Applications of TCP and UDP
			TCP Applications
			UDP Applications
		Summary Comparison of UDP and TCP
	43. TCP AND UDP ADDRESSING: PORTS AND SOCKETS
		TCP/IP Processes, Multiplexing, and Client/Server Application Roles
			Multiplexing and Demultiplexing
			TCP/IP Client Processes and Server Processes
		TCP/IP Ports: TCP/UDP Addressing
			Multiplexing and Demultiplexing Using Ports
			Source Port and Destination Port Numbers
			Summary of Port Use for Datagram Transmission and Reception
		TCP/IP Application Assignments and Server Port Number Ranges
			Reserved Port Numbers
			TCP/UDP Port Number Ranges
		TCP/IP Client (Ephemeral) Ports and Client/Server Application Port Use
			Ephemeral Port Number Assignment
			Ephemeral Port Number Ranges
			Port Number Use During a Client/Server Exchange
		TCP/IP Sockets and Socket Pairs: Process and Connection Identification
		Common TCP/IP Applications and Well-Known and Registered Port Numbers
	44. TCP/IP USER DATAGRAM PROTOCOL (UDP)
		UDP Overview, History, and Standards
		UDP Operation
			What UDP Does
			What UDP Does Not Do
		UDP Message Format
		UDP Common Applications and Server Port Assignments
			Why Some TCP/IP Applications Use UDP
			Common UDP Applications and Server Port Use
			Applications That Use Both UDP and TCP
	45. TCP OVERVIEW, FUNCTIONS, AND CHARACTERISTICS
		TCP Overview, History, and Standards
			TCP History
			Overview of TCP Operation
			TCP Standards
		TCP Functions
			Functions That TCP Performs
			Functions That TCP Doesn't Perform
		TCP Characteristics
		The Robustness Principle
	46. TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL (TCP) FUNDAMENTALS AND GENERAL OPERATION
		TCP Data Handling and Processing
			Increasing the Flexibility of Application Data Handling: TCP's Stream Orientation
			TCP Data Packaging: Segments
			TCP Data Identification: Sequence Numbers
			The Need for Application Data Delimiting
		TCP Sliding Window Acknowledgment System
			The Problem with Unreliable Protocols: Lack of Feedback
			Providing Basic Reliability Using Positive Acknowledgment with Retransmission (PAR)
			Improving PAR
			TCP's Stream-Oriented Sliding Window Acknowledgment System
				Conceptual Division of TCP Transmission Stream into Categories
				Sequence Number Assignment and Synchronization
				The Send Window and Usable Window
				Changes to TCP Categories and Window Sizes After Sending Bytes in the Usable Window
				Processing Acknowledgments and Sliding the Send Window
				Dealing with Missing Acknowledgments
			More Information on TCP Sliding Windows
		TCP Ports, Connections, and Connection Identification
		TCP Common Applications and Server Port Assignments
	47. TCP BASIC OPERATION: CONNECTION ESTABLISHMENT, MANAGEMENT, AND TERMINATION
		TCP Operational Overview and the TCP Finite State Machine (FSM)
			Basic FSM Concepts
			The Simplified TCP FSM
		TCP Connection Preparation
			Storing Connection Data: The Transmission Control Block (TCB)
			Active and Passive Opens
			Preparation for Connection
		TCP Connection Establishment Process: The Three-Way Handshake
			Connection Establishment Functions
			Control Messages Used for Connection Establishment: SYN and ACK
			Normal Connection Establishment: The Three-Way Handshake
			Simultaneous Open Connection Establishment
		TCP Connection Establishment Sequence Number Synchronization and Parameter Exchange
			Initial Sequence Number Selection
			TCP Sequence Number Synchronization
			TCP Parameter Exchange
		TCP Connection Management and Problem Handling
			The TCP Reset Function
			Handling Reset Segments
			Idle Connection Management and Keepalive Messages
		TCP Connection Termination
			Requirements and Issues In Connection Termination
			Normal Connection Termination
			The TIME-WAIT State
			Simultaneous Connection Termination
	48. TCP MESSAGE FORMATTING AND DATA TRANSFER
		TCP Message (Segment) Format
		TCP Checksum Calculation and the TCP Pseudo Header
			Detecting Transmission Errors Using Checksums
			Increasing the Scope of Detected Errors: The TCP Pseudo Header
			Advantages of the Pseudo Header Method
		TCP Maximum Segment Size (MSS)
			MSS Selection
			TCP Default MSS
			Nondefault MSS Value Specification
		TCP Sliding Window Data Transfer and Acknowledgment Mechanics
			Sliding Window Transmit and Receive Categories
			Send (SND) and Receive (RCV) Pointers
			TCP Segment Fields Used to Exchange Pointer Information
			An Example of TCP Sliding Window Mechanics
			Real-World Complications of the Sliding Window Mechanism
		TCP Immediate Data Transfer: Push Function
		TCP Priority Data Transfer: Urgent Function
	49. TCP RELIABILITY AND FLOW CONTROL FEATURES
		TCP Segment Retransmission Timers and the Retransmission Queue
			Managing Retransmissions Using the Retransmission Queue
			Recognizing When a Segment Is Fully Acknowledged
		TCP Noncontiguous Acknowledgment Handling and Selective Acknowledgment (SACK)
			Policies for Dealing with Outstanding Unacknowledged Segments
			A Better Solution: Selective Acknowledgment (SACK)
		TCP Adaptive Retransmission and Retransmission Timer Calculations
			Adaptive Retransmission Based on RTT Calculations
			Acknowledgment Ambiguity
			Refinements to RTT Calculation and Karn's Algorithm
		TCP Window Size Adjustment and Flow Control
			Reducing Send Window Size to Reduce the Rate Data Is Sent
			Reducing Send Window Size to Stop the Sending of New Data
			Closing the Send Window
		TCP Window Management Issues
			Problems Associated with Shrinking the TCP Window
			Reducing Buffer Size Without Shrinking the Window
			Handling a Closed Window and Sending Probe Segments
		TCP Silly Window Syndrome
			How Silly Window Syndrome Occurs
			Silly Window Syndrome Avoidance Algorithms
				Receiver SWS Avoidance
				Sender SWS Avoidance and Nagle's Algorithm
		TCP Congestion Handling and Congestion Avoidance Algorithms
			Congestion Considerations
			TCP Congestion-Handling Mechanisms
				Slow Start
				Congestion Avoidance
				Fast Retransmit
				Fast Recovery
III-1. NAME SYSTEMS AND TCP/IP NAME REGISTRATION AND NAME RESOLUTION
	50. NAME SYSTEM ISSUES, CONCEPTS, AND TECHNIQUES
		Name System Overview
			Symbolic Names for Addressing
			A Paradox: Name Systems Are Both Essential and Unnecessary
			Factors That Determine the Necessity of a Name System
			Basic Name System Functions: Name Space, Name Registration, and Name Resolution
		Name Spaces and Name Architectures
			Name Space Functions
			Flat Name Architecture (Flat Name Space)
			Hierarchical Name Architecture (Structured Name Space)
			Comparing Name Architectures
		Name Registration Methods, Administration, and Authorities
			Name Registration Functions
			Hierarchical Name Registration
			Name Registration Methods
			Table Name Registration
			Broadcast Name Registration
			Database Registration
		Name Resolution Techniques and Elements
			Name Resolution Methods
			Table-Based Name Resolution
			Broadcast Name Resolution
			Client/Server Name Resolution
			Client/Server Name Resolution Functional Elements
		Efficiency, Reliability, and Other Name Resolution Considerations
			Efficiency Considerations
			Reliability Considerations
			Other Considerations
	51. TCP/IP NAME SYSTEMS OVERVIEW AND THE HOST TABLE NAME SYSTEM
		A Brief History of TCP/IP Host Names and Name Systems
			Developing the First Name System: ARPAnet Host Name Lists
			Storing Host Names in a Host Table File
			Outgrowing the Host Table Name System and Moving to DNS
		The TCP/IP Host Table Name System
			Host Table Name Resolution
			Host Table Name Registration
			Weaknesses of the Host Table Name System
			Use of the Host Table Name System in Modern Networking
				Small "Island" Networks
				Local Name Mappings to Supplement DNS
	52. DOMAIN NAME SYSTEM (DNS) OVERVIEW, FUNCTIONS, AND CHARACTERISTICS
		DNS Overview, History, and Standards
			Early DNS Development and the Move to Hierarchical Domains
			Standardization of DNS and Initial Defining Standards
			DNS Evolution and Important Additional Standards
			DNS Adaptation for Internet Protocol Version 6
		DNS Design Goals, Objectives, and Assumptions
			DNS Design Goals and Objectives
			DNS Design Assumptions
		DNS Components and General Functions
			DNS Name Space
			Name Registration (Including Administration and Authorities)
			Name Resolution
	53. DNS NAME SPACE, ARCHITECTURE, AND TERMINOLOGY
		DNS Domains and the DNS Hierarchical Name Architecture
			The Essential Concept in the DNS Name Space: Domains
			The DNS Hierarchical Tree Structure of Names
		DNS Structural Elements and Terminology
			DNS Tree-Related Terminology
			DNS Domain-Related Terminology
			DNS Family-Related Terminology
		DNS Labels, Names, and Syntax Rules
			DNS Labels and Label Syntax Rules
			Domain Name Construction
		Absolute (Fully Qualified) and Relative (Partially Qualified) Domain Name Specifications
			Fully Qualified Domain Names
			Partially Qualified Domain Names
	54. DNS NAME REGISTRATION, PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION, ZONES, AND AUTHORITIES
		DNS Hierarchical Authority Structure and the Distributed Name Database
			The DNS Root Domain Central Authority
			TLD Authorities
			Lower-Level Authority Delegation
			Authority Hierarchy's Relationship to the Name Hierarchy
			The DNS Distributed Name Database
		DNS Organizational (Generic) TLDs and Authorities
			Original Generic TLDs
			New Generic TLDs
		DNS Geopolitical (Country Code) TLDs and Authorities
			Country Code Designations
			Country Code TLD Authorities
			Leasing/Sale of Country Code Domains
			Drawbacks of the Geopolitical TLDs
		Public Registration for Second-Level and Lower Domains
			Registration Authority
			Registration Coordination
		DNS Public Registration Disputes and Dispute Resolution
			Public Registration Disputes
			Methods of Registration Dispute Resolution
			The Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy
		DNS Name Space Administrative Hierarchy Partitioning: DNS Zones of Authority
			Methods of Dividing a Name Space into Zones of Authority
			The Impact of Zones on Name Resolution: Authoritative Servers
		DNS Private Name Registration
			Using Publicly Accessible Private Names
			Using Private Names for Internal Use
			Using Private Names on Networks Not Connected to the Internet
	55. DNS NAME SERVER CONCEPTS AND OPERATION
		DNS General Operation
			DNS Name Server Architecture and the Distributed Name Database
			DNS Server Support Functions
			The Logical Nature of the DNS Name Server Hierarchy
		DNS Name Server Data Storage
			Binary and Text Representations of Resource Records
			Use of RRs and Master Files
			Common RR Types
			RR Classes
		DNS Name Server Types and Roles
			Master (Primary)/Slave (Secondary) Servers
			Name Server Roles
			Caching-Only Name Servers
		DNS Zone Management, Contacts, and Zone Transfers
			Domain Contacts
			Zone Transfers
				Control of When Zone Transfers Occur
				Zone Transfer Mechanism
		DNS Root Name Servers
			Root Name Server Redundancy
			Current Root Name Servers
		DNS Name Server Caching
			Name Server Caching
			Caching Data Persistence and the Time to Live Interval
			Negative Caching
		DNS Name Server Load Balancing
			Using Multiple Address Records to Spread Out Requests to a Domain
			Using Multiple DNS Servers to Spread Out DNS Requests
		DNS Name Server Enhancements
			Automating Zone Transfers: DNS Notify
			Improving Zone Transfer Efficiency: Incremental Transfers
			Dealing with Dynamic IP Addresses: DNS Update/Dynamic DNS
	56. DNS RESOLUTION CONCEPTS AND RESOLVER OPERATIONS
		DNS Resolver Functions and General Operation
			Name Resolution Services
			Functions Performed by Name Resolvers
		DNS Name Resolution Techniques: Iterative and Recursive Resolution
			Iterative Resolution
			Recursive Resolution
			Contrasting Iterative and Recursive Resolution
		DNS Name Resolution Efficiency Improvements: Caching and Local Resolution
			The Motivation for Caching: Locality of Reference
			Name Resolver Caching
			Local Resolution
		DNS Name Resolution Process
			A Simple Example of DNS Name Resolution
			Changes to Resolution to Handle Aliases (CNAME Records)
		DNS Reverse Name Resolution Using the IN-ADDR.ARPA Domain
			The Original Method: Inverse Querying
			The IN-ADDR.ARPA Name Structure for Reverse Resolution
			RR Setup for Reverse Resolution
		DNS Electronic Mail Support and Mail Exchange (MX) Resource Records
			Special Requirements for Email Name Resolution
			The Mail Exchange (MX) Record and Its Use
	57. DNS MESSAGING AND MESSAGE, RESOURCE RECORD, AND MASTER FILE FORMATS
		DNS Message Generation and Transport
			DNS Client/Server Messaging Overview
			DNS Message Transport Using UDP and TCP
			DNS Message Processing and General Message Format
		DNS Message Header Format
		DNS Question Section Format
		DNS Message Resource Record Field Formats
			DNS Common RR Format
			RData Field Formats for Common RRs
				A (Address) RR (Type Value 1)
				NS (Name Server) RR (Type Value 2)
				CName (Canonical Name) RR (Type Value 5)
				SOA (Start Of Authority) RR (Type Value 6)
				PTR (Pointer) RR (Type Value 12)
				MX (Mail Exchange) RR (Type Value 15)
				TXT (Text) RR (Type Value 16)
		DNS Name Notation and Message Compression
			Standard DNS Name Notation
			DNS Electronic Mail Address Notation
			DNS Message Compression
				Using Message Compression to Avoid Duplication of a Full Name
				Using Message Compression to Avoid Duplication of Part of a Name
		DNS Master File Format
			DNS Common Master File Record Format
			Use and Interpretation of Partially Qualified Domain Names (PQDNs)
			Master File Directives
			Syntax Rules for Master Files
			Specific RR Syntax and Examples
				A (Address) RR
				NS (Name Server) RR
				CName (Canonical Name) RR
				SOA (Start Of Authority) RR
				PTR (Pointer) RR
				MX (Mail Exchange) RR
				TXT (Text) RR
			Sample Master File
		DNS Changes to Support IPv6
			IPv6 DNS Extensions
			Proposed Changes to the IPv6 DNS Extensions
III-2. NETWORK FILE AND RESOURCE SHARING PROTOCOLS
	58. NETWORK FILE AND RESOURCE SHARING AND THE TCP/IP NETWORK FILE SYSTEM (NFS)
		File and Resource Sharing Concepts and Components
			The Power of File and Resource Sharing Protocols
			Components of a File and Resource Sharing Protocol
		NFS Design Goals, Versions, and Standards
			NFS Design Goals
			NFS Versions and Standards
		NFS Architecture and Components
			NFS Main Components
			Other Important NFS Functions
		NFS Data Definition with the External Data Representation (XDR) Standard
			A Method of Universal Data Exchange: XDR
			XDR Data Types
		NFS Client/Server Operation Using Remote Procedure Calls (RPCs)
			RPC Operation and Transport Protocol Usage
			Client and Server Responsibilities in NFS
			Client and Server Caching
		NFS Server Procedures and Operations
			NFS Version 2 and Version 3 Server Procedures
			NFS Version 4 Server Procedures and Operations
		NFS File System Model and the Mount Protocol
			The NFS File System Model
			The Mount Protocol
III-3. HOST CONFIGURATION AND TCP/IP HOST CONFIGURATION PROTOCOLS
	59. HOST CONFIGURATION CONCEPTS, ISSUES, AND MOTIVATION
		The Purpose of Host Configuration
		The Problems with Manual Host Configuration
		Automating the Process: Host Configuration Protocols
		The Role of Host Configuration Protocols in TCP/IP
	60. TCP/IP BOOTSTRAP PROTOCOL (BOOTP)
		BOOTP Overview, History, and Standards
			BOOTP: Correcting the Weaknesses of RARP
			Vendor-Specific Parameters
			Changes to BOOTP and the Development of DHCP
		BOOTP Client/Server Messaging and Addressing
			BOOTP Messaging and Transport
			BOOTP Use of Broadcasts and Ports
			Retransmission of Lost Messages
		BOOTP Detailed Operation
			BOOTP Bootstrapping Procedure
			Interpretation of the Client IP Address (CIAddr) Field
		BOOTP Message Format
		BOOTP Vendor-Specific Area and Vendor Information Extensions
			BOOTP Vendor Information Extensions
			BOOTP Vendor Information Fields
		BOOTP Relay Agents (Forwarding Agents)
			The Function of BOOTP Relay Agents
			Normal BOOTP Operation Using a Relay Agent
			Relaying BOOTP Requests Using Broadcasts
	61. DHCP OVERVIEW AND ADDRESS ALLOCATION CONCEPTS
		DHCP Overview, History, and Standards
			DHCP: Building on BOOTP's Strengths
			Overview of DHCP Features
		DHCP Address Assignment and Allocation Mechanisms
			DHCP Address Allocation
			DHCP Manual Allocation
			DHCP Dynamic Allocation
			DHCP Automatic Allocation
		DHCP Leases
			DHCP Lease Length Policy
			Issues with Infinite Leases
		DHCP Lease Life Cycle and Lease Timers
			DHCP Lease Life Cycle Phases
			Renewal and Rebinding Timers
		DHCP Lease Address Pools, Ranges, and Address Management
			Address Pool Size Selection
			Lease Address Ranges (Scopes)
			Other Issues with Address Management
	62. DHCP CONFIGURATION AND OPERATION
		DHCP Overview of Client and Server Responsibilities
			DHCP Server Responsibilities
			DHCP Client Responsibilities
			DHCP Client/Server Roles
			DHCP Relay Agents
		DHCP Configuration Parameters, Storage, and Communication
			Configuration Parameter Management
			Parameter Storage
			Configuration Parameter Communication
		DHCP General Operation and the Client Finite State Machine
		DHCP Lease Allocation, Reallocation, and Renewal
			Initial Lease Allocation Process
			DHCP Lease Reallocation Process
			DHCP Lease Renewal and Rebinding Processes
			DHCP Early Lease Termination (Release) Process
		DHCP Parameter Configuration Process for Clients with Non-DHCP Addresses
	63. DHCP MESSAGING, MESSAGE TYPES, AND FORMATS
		DHCP Message Generation, Addressing, Transport, and Retransmission
			Message Generation and General Formatting
			Message Transport
			Retransmission of Lost Messages
		DHCP Message Format
		DHCP Options
			Options and Option Format
			Option Categories
			Option Overloading
		Summary of DHCP Options/BOOTP Vendor Information Fields
			RFC 1497 Vendor Extensions
			IP Layer Parameters per Host
			IP Layer Parameters per Interface
			Link Layer Parameters per Interface
			TCP Parameters
			Application and Service Parameters
			DHCP Extensions
	64. DHCP CLIENT/SERVER IMPLEMENTATION, FEATURES, AND IPV6 SUPPORT
		DHCP Server and Client Implementation and Management Issues
			DHCP Server Implementations
				DHCP Server Software Features
				Choosing the Number of Servers
				Server Placement, Setup, and Maintenance
			DHCP Client Implementations
		DHCP Message Relaying and BOOTP Relay Agents
			BOOTP Relay Agents for DHCP
			DHCP Relaying Process
		DHCP Autoconfiguration/Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA)
			APIPA Operation
			APIPA Limitations
		DHCP Server Conflict Detection
		DHCP and BOOTP Interoperability
			BOOTP Clients Connecting to a DHCP Server
			DHCP Clients Connecting to a BOOTP Server
		DHCP Security Issues
			DHCP Security Concerns
			DHCP Authentication
		DHCP for IP Version 6 (DHCPv6)
			Two Methods for Autoconfiguration in IPv6
			DHCPv6 Operation Overview
			DHCPv6 Message Exchanges
III-4. TCP/IP NETWORK MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK AND PROTOCOLS
	65. TCP/IP INTERNET STANDARD MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK OVERVIEW
		Overview and History of the TCP/IP Internet Standard Management Framework and Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
			Early Development of SNMP
			The Two Meanings of SNMP
			Design Goals of SNMP
			Further Development of SNMP and the Problem of SNMP Variations
		TCP/IP SNMP Operational Model, Components, and Terminology
			SNMP Device Types
			SNMP Entities
				Managed Node Entities
				Network Management Station Entities
			SNMP Operational Model Summary
		TCP/IP Internet Standard Management Framework Architecture and Protocol Components
			SNMP Framework Components
			SNMP Framework Architecture
		TCP/IP Internet Standard Management Framework and SNMP Versions (SNMPv1, SNMPv2 Variants, and SNMPv3)
			SNMPv1
			SNMPsec
			SNMPv2
			SNMPv2 Variants
			SNMPv3
		TCP/IP Internet Standard Management Framework and SNMP Standards
	66. TCP/IP STRUCTURE OF MANAGEMENT INFORMATION (SMI) AND MANAGEMENT INFORMATION BASES (MIBS)
		TCP/IP SMI and MIBs Overview
			SNMP's Information-Oriented Design
			MIB and MIB Objects
			Defining MIB Objects: SMI
		TCP/IP MIB Objects, Object Characteristics, and Object Types
			MIB Object Characteristics
			SMI Data Types
		TCP/IP MIB Object Descriptors and Identifiers and the Object Name Hierarchy
			Object Descriptors
			Object Identifiers
			Structure of the MIB Object Name Hierarchy
			Recursive Definition of MIB Object Identifiers
		TCP/IP MIB Modules and Object Groups
			The Organization of MIB Objects into Object Groups
			MIB Modules
			MIB Module Format
	67. TCP/IP SIMPLE NETWORK MANAGEMENT PROTOCOL (SNMP) CONCEPTS AND OPERATION
		SNMP Protocol Overview
			Early Development of SNMPv1
			SNMPv2 and the Division of SNMP into Protocol Operations and Transport Mappings
			SNMP Communication Methods
		SNMP Protocol Operations
			SNMP PDU Classes
			Basic Request/Response Information Poll Using GetRequest and (Get)Response Messages
			Table Traversal Using GetNextRequest and GetBulkRequest Messages
				SNMPv1 Table Traversal Using GetNextRequest
				SNMPv2/v3 Table Traversal Using GetBulkRequest
			Object Modification Using SetRequest Messages
			Information Notification Using Trap and InformRequest Messages
				Use of SNMP Trap and Trapv2 Messages
				Use of the SNMPv2 InformRequest Message
		SNMP Protocol Security Issues and Methods
			Problems with SNMPv1 Security
			SNMPv2/v3 Security Methods
	68. SNMP PROTOCOL MESSAGING AND MESSAGE FORMATS
		SNMP Protocol Message Generation
		SNMP Transport Mappings
			UDP Message Size Issues
			Lost Transmission Issues
		SNMP General Message Format
			The Difference Between SNMP Messages and PDUs
			General PDU Format
		SNMP Version 1 (SNMPv1) Message Format
			SNMPv1 General Message Format
			SNMPv1 PDU Formats
		SNMP Version 2 (SNMPv2) Message Formats
			SNMP Version 2 (SNMPv2p) Message Format
			Community-Based SNMP Version 2 (SNMPv2c) Message Format
			User-Based SNMP Version 2 (SNMPv2u) Message Format
			SNMPv2 PDU Formats
		SNMP Version 3 (SNMPv3) Message Format
	69. TCP/IP REMOTE NETWORK MONITORING (RMON)
		RMON Standards
		RMON MIB Hierarchy and Object Groups
		RMON Alarms, Events, and Statistics
III-5. TCP/IP APPLICATION LAYER ADDRESSING AND APPLICATION CATEGORIES
	70. TCP/IP APPLICATION LAYER ADDRESSING: UNIFORM RESOURCE IDENTIFIERS, LOCATORS, AND NAMES (URIS, URLS, AND URNS)
		URI Overview and Standards
			URI Categories: URLs and URNs
			URI Standards
		URL General Syntax
			Common Internet Scheme Syntax
			Omission of URL Syntax Elements
			URL Fragments
			Unsafe Characters and Special Encodings
		URL Schemes and Scheme-Specific Syntaxes
			World Wide Web/Hypertext Transfer Protocol Syntax (http)
			File Transfer Protocol Syntax (ftp)
			Electronic Mail Syntax (mailto)
			Gopher Protocol Syntax (gopher)
			Network News/Usenet Syntax (news)
			Network News Transfer Protocol Syntax (nttp)
			Telnet Syntax (telnet)
			Local File Syntax (file)
			Special Syntax Rules
		URL Relative Syntax and Base URLs
			Interpretation Rules for Relative URLs
			Practical Interpretation of Relative URLs
		URL Length and Complexity Issues
			URL Wrapping and Delimiting
			Explicit URL Delimiting and Redirectors
			URL Abbreviation
		URL Obscuration, Obfuscation, and General Trickery
		URNs
			The Problem with URLs
			Overview of URNs
			URN Namespaces and Syntax
			URN Resolution and Implementation Difficulties
	71. FILE AND MESSAGE TRANSFER OVERVIEW AND APPLICATION CATEGORIES
		File Concepts
		Application Categories
			General File Transfer Applications
			Message Transfer Applications
				Electronic Mail (Email)
				Network News (Usenet)
				Hypertext (World Wide Web)
			The Merging of File and Message Transfer Methods
III-6. TCP/IP GENERAL FILE TRANSFER PROTOCOLS
	72. FILE TRANSFER PROTOCOL (FTP)
		FTP Overview, History, and Standards
			FTP Development and Standardization
			Overview of FTP Operation
		FTP Operational Model, Protocol Components, and Key Terminology
			The Server-FTP Process and User-FTP Process
			FTP Control Connection and Data Connection
			FTP Process Components and Terminology
			Server-FTP Process Components
			User-FTP Process Components
			Third-Party File Transfer (Proxy FTP)
		FTP Control Connection Establishment, User Authentication, and Anonymous FTP Access
			FTP Login Sequence and Authentication
			FTP Security Extensions
			Anonymous FTP
		FTP Data Connection Management
			Normal (Active) Data Connections
			Passive Data Connections
			Efficiency and Security Issues Related to the Connection Methods
		FTP General Data Communication and Transmission Modes
			Stream Mode
			Block Mode
			Compressed Mode
		FTP Data Representation: Data Types, Format Control, and Data Structures
			FTP Data Types
			ASCII Data Type Line-Delimiting Issues
			FTP Format Control
			FTP Data Structures
		FTP Internal Command Groups and Protocol Commands
			FTP Command Groups and Commands
		FTP Replies
			Advantages of Using Both Text and Numeric Replies
			Reply Code Structure and Digit Interpretation
			FTP Multiple-Line Text Replies
		FTP User Interface and User Commands
			Command-Line and Graphical FTP Interfaces
			Typical FTP User Commands
		Sample FTP Session
	73. TRIVIAL FILE TRANSFER PROTOCOL (TFTP)
		TFTP Overview, History, and Standards
			Why TFTP Was Needed
			Comparing FTP and TFTP
			Overview of TFTP Operation
		TFTP General Operation, Connection Establishment, and Client/Server Communication
			Connection Establishment and Identification
			Lock-Step Client/Server Messaging
			Difficulties with TFTP's Simplified Messaging Mechanism
		TFTP Detailed Operation and Messaging
			Initial Message Exchange
			Data Block Numbering
			TFTP Read Process Steps
			TFTP Write Process Steps
		TFTP Options and Option Negotiation
			TFTP Option Negotiation Process
			TFTP Options
		TFTP Message Formats
			Read Request and Write Request Messages
			Data Messages
			Acknowledgment Messages
			Error Messages
			Option Acknowledgment Messages
III-7. TCP/IP ELECTRONIC MAIL SYSTEM: CONCEPTS AND PROTOCOLS
	74. TCP/IP ELECTRONIC MAIL SYSTEM OVERVIEW AND CONCEPTS
		TCP/IP Electronic Mail System Overview and History
			The Early Days of Email
			History of TCP/IP Email
			Overview of the TCP/IP Email System
		TCP/IP Email Communication Overview
		TCP/IP Email Message Communication Model
		Protocol Roles in Email Communication
	75. TCP/IP ELECTRONIC MAIL ADDRESSES AND ADDRESSING
		TCP/IP Email Addressing and Address Resolution
			Standard DNS-Based Email Addresses
			Special Requirements of Email Addresses
		TCP/IP Historical and Special Email Addressing
			FidoNet Addressing
			UUCP-Style Addressing
			Addressing for Gatewaying
		TCP/IP Email Aliases and Address Books
		Multiple Recipient Addressing
		Mailing Lists
	76. TCP/IP ELECTRONIC MAIL MESSAGE FORMATS AND MESSAGE PROCESSING: RFC 822 AND MIME
		TCP/IP Email RFC 822 Standard Message Format Overview
			Development of the RFC 822 Message Format Standard
			Overview of RFC 822 Messages
			General RFC 822 Message Structure
		TCP/IP Email RFC 822 Standard Message Format Header Fields and Groups
			Header Field Structure
			Header Field Groups
			Common Header Field Groups and Header Fields
		TCP/IP Email RFC 822 Standard Message Format Processing and Interpretation
		MIME Overview
			The Motivation for MIME
				The Motivation for MIME
			MIME Capabilities
			MIME Standards
		MIME Basic Structures and Headers
			Basic Structures
			MIME Entities
			Primary MIME Headers
			Additional MIME Headers
		MIME Content-Type Header and Discrete Media
			Content-Type Header Syntax
			Discrete Media Types and Subtypes
				Text Media Type (text)
				Image Media Type (image)
				Audio Media Type (audio)
				Video Media Type (video)
				Model Media Type (model)
				Application Media Type (application)
		MIME Composite Media Types: Multipart and Encapsulated Message Structures
			MIME Multipart Message Type
				MIME Multipart Message Subtypes
			Multipart Message Encoding
			MIME Encapsulated Message Type
			MIME Content-Transfer-Encoding Header and Encoding Methods
			7-Bit and 8-Bit Encoding
			Quoted-Printable Encoding
			Base64 Encoding
		MIME Extension for non-ASCII Mail Message Headers
	77. TCP/IP ELECTRONIC MAIL DELIVERY PROTOCOL: THE SIMPLE MAIL TRANSFER PROTOCOL (SMTP)
		SMTP Overview, History, and Standards
			SMTP Standards
			SMTP Communication and Message Transport Methods
				Early Email Communication Using Relaying
				Modern Email Communication Using DNS and Direct Delivery
			Terminology: Client/Server and Sender/Receiver
		SMTP Connection and Session Establishment and Termination
			Overview of Connection Establishment and Termination
			Connection Establishment and Greeting Exchange
			Connection Establishment Using SMTP Extensions
			Connection Termination
		SMTP Mail Transaction Process
			Overview of SMTP Mail Transaction
			SMTP Mail Transaction Details
		SMTP Special Features, Capabilities, and Extensions
			SMTP Special Features and Capabilities
			SMTP Extensions
		SMTP Security Issues
		SMTP Commands
		SMTP Replies and Reply Codes
			Reply Code Structure and Digit Interpretation
			SMTP Multiple-Line Text Replies
			Enhanced Status Code Replies
	78. TCP/IP ELECTRONIC MAIL ACCESS AND RETRIEVAL PROTOCOLS AND METHODS
		TCP/IP Email Mailbox Access Model, Method, and Protocol Overview
			Email Access and Retrieval Models
		TCP/IP Post Office Protocol (POP/POP3)
			POP Overview, History, Versions, and Standards
			POP3 General Operation
			POP3 Session States
				POP3 Authorization State: User Authentication Process and Commands
				POP3 Transaction State: Mail and Information Exchange Process and Commands
				POP3 Update State: Mailbox Update and Session Termination Process and Commands
		TCP/IP Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP/IMAP4)
			IMAP Overview, History, Versions, and Standards
				IMAP Features
				IMAP History and Standards
			IMAP General Operation
			IMAP Session States
				Session Establishment and Greeting
				Preauthentication
			IMAP Commands, Results, and Responses
				Command Groups
				"Any State" Commands
				Results and Responses
				Result Codes
				Response Codes
			IMAP Not Authenticated State: User Authentication Process and Commands
				IMAP Authentication Methods
			IMAP Authenticated State: Mailbox Manipulation/Selection Process and Commands
				Authenticated State Commands
			IMAP Selected State: Message Manipulation Process and Commands
				Selected State Commands
		TCP/IP Direct Server Email Access
		TCP/IP World Wide Web Email Access
III-8. TCP/IP WORLD WIDE WEB AND THE HYPERTEXT TRANSFER PROTOCOL (HTTP)
	79. WORLD WIDE WEB AND HYPERTEXT OVERVIEW AND CONCEPTS
		World Wide Web and Hypertext Overview and History
			History of Hypertext
			The World Wide Web Today
		World Wide Web System Concepts and Components
			Major Functional Components of the Web
			Web Servers and Web Browsers
		World Wide Web Media and the Hypertext Markup Language
			Overview of HTML
			HTML Elements and Tags
			Common HTML Elements
			Common Text Formatting Tags
		World Wide Web Addressing: HTTP Uniform Resource Locators
			HTTP URL Syntax
			Resource Paths and Directory Listings
	80. HTTP GENERAL OPERATION AND CONNECTIONS
		HTTP Versions and Standards
			HTTP/0.9
			HTTP/1.0
			HTTP/1.1
			Future HTTP Versions
		HTTP Operational Model and Client/Server Communication
			Basic HTTP Client/Server Communication
			Intermediaries and the HTTP Request/Response Chain
			The Impact of Caching on HTTP Communication
		HTTP Transitory and Persistent Connections and Pipelining
			Persistent Connections
			Pipelining
			HTTP Persistent Connection Establishment and Management
	81. HTTP MESSAGES, METHODS, AND STATUS CODES
		HTTP Generic Message Format
		HTTP Request Message Format
			Request Line
				Method
				Request URI
				HTTP Version
			Headers
		HTTP Response Message Format
			Status Line
				HTTP Version
				Status Code and Reason Phrase
			Headers
		HTTP Methods
			Common Methods
				GET
				HEAD
				POST
			Other Methods
			Safe and Idempotent Methods
		HTTP Status Codes and Reason Phrases
			Status Code Format
			Reason Phrases
			The 100 (Continue) Preliminary Reply
	82. HTTP MESSAGE HEADERS
		HTTP General Headers
			Cache-Control Headers
			Warning
			Other HTTP General Headers
		HTTP Request Headers
		HTTP Response Headers
		HTTP Entity Headers
	83. HTTP Entities, Transfers, Coding Methods, and Content Management
		HTTP Entities and Internet Media Types
			Media Types and Subtypes
			HTTP's Use of Media Types
			Differences in HTTP and MIME Constructs
		HTTP Content and Transfer Encodings
			HTTP's Two-Level Encoding Scheme
			Use of Content and Transfer Encodings
		HTTP Data Length Issues, Chunked Transfers, and Message Trailers
			Dynamic Data Length
			Chunked Transfers and Message Trailers
		HTTP Content Negotiation and Quality Values
			Content Negotiation Techniques
			Quality Values for Preference Weights
	84. HTTP FEATURES, CAPABILITIES, AND ISSUES
		HTTP Caching Features and Issues
			Benefits of HTTP Caching
			Cache Locations
				Caching on the Web Client
				Caching on the Intermediary
				Caching on the Web Server
			Cache Control
			Important Caching Issues
		HTTP Proxy Servers and Proxying
			Benefits of Proxies
			Comparing Proxies and Caches
			Important Proxying Issues
		HTTP Security and Privacy
			HTTP Authentication Methods
			Security and Privacy Concerns and Issues
			Methods for Ensuring Privacy in HTTP
		HTTP State Management Using Cookies
			Issues with Cookies
			Managing Cookie Use
III-9. OTHER FILE AND MESSAGE TRANSFER APPLICATIONS
	85. USENET (NETWORK NEWS) AND THE TCP/IP NETWORK NEWS TRANSFER PROTOCOL (NNTP)
		Usenet Overview, History, and Operation
			History of Usenet
			Usenet Operation and Characteristics
			Usenet Transport Methods
		Usenet Communication Model
			Usenet's Public Distribution Orientation
			Usenet Communication Process
			Message Propagation and Server Organization
			Usenet Addressing: Newsgroups
				The Usenet Newsgroup Hierarchies
				The "Big Eight" Newsgroup Hierarchies
				Alt and Other Newsgroup Hierarchies
				Unmoderated and Moderated Newsgroups
				Cross-Posting to Multiple Newsgroups
		Usenet Message Format and Special Headers
			Usenet Header Categories and Common Headers
			Additional Usenet Headers
			Usenet MIME Messages
		NNTP Overview and General Operation
		NNTP Interserver Communication Process: News Article Propagation
			The Usenet Server Structure
			Basic NNTP Propagation Methods
				Article Propagation Using the Push Model
				Improving Propagation Efficiency with Streaming Mode
				Article Propagation Using the Pull Model
		NNTP Client-Server Communication Process: News Posting and Access
			News Posting, Access, and Reading
			News Access Methods
			Other Client/Server Functions
			Article Threading
		NNTP Commands and Command Extensions
			Command Syntax
			Base Command Set
			NNTP Command Extensions
				NNTP Transport Extensions
				NNTP Newsreader Extensions
				Other NNTP Extensions
		NNTP Status Responses and Response Codes
	86. GOPHER PROTOCOL (GOPHER)
		Gopher Overview and General Operation
			Information Storage on Gopher Servers
			Gopher Client/Server Operation
		Important Differences Between Gopher and the Web
		Gopher's Role in the Modern Internet
III-10. INTERACTIVE AND ADMINISTRATIVE UTILITIES AND PROTOCOLS
	87. TCP/IP INTERACTIVE AND REMOTE APPLICATION PROTOCOLS
		Telnet Protocol
			Telnet Overview, History, and Standards
				Telnet History
				Fundamental Telnet Concepts
				Telnet Applications
			Telnet Connections and Client/Server Operation
				TCP Sessions and Client/Server Communication
				Use of Telnet to Access Other Servers
			Telnet Communications Model and the Network Virtual Terminal (NVT)
				The NVT
				NVT ASCII Control Codes
				Half-Duplex and Full-Duplex Modes
			Telnet Protocol Commands
			Telnet Interrupt Handling
			Telnet Options and Option Negotiation
				Common Telnet Options
				Telnet Option Negotiation
				Option Subnegotiation
		Berkeley Remote (r) Commands
			Berkeley Remote Login (rlogin)
			Berkeley Remote Shell (rsh)
			Other Berkeley Remote Commands
		Internet Relay Chat Protocol (IRC)
			IRC Communication Model and Client/Server Operation
			Messaging and IRC Channels
			IRC and the Modern Internet
	88. TCP/IP ADMINISTRATION AND TROUBLESHOOTING UTILITIES AND PROTOCOLS
		TCP/IP Host Name Utility (hostname)
		TCP/IP Communication Verification Utility (ping)
			Operation of the ping Utility
			Basic Use of ping
			Methods of Diagnosing Connectivity Problems Using ping
			ping Options and Parameters
		TCP/IP Route Tracing Utility (traceroute)
			Operation of the traceroute Utility
			Basic Use of the traceroute Utility
			traceroute Options and Parameters
		TCP/IP Address Resolution Protocol Utility (arp)
		TCP/IP DNS Name Resolution and Lookup Utilities (nslookup, host, and dig)
			The nslookup Utility
			The host Utility
			The dig Utility
		TCP/IP DNS Registry Database Lookup Utility (whois/nicname)
		TCP/IP Network Status Utility (netstat)
			The UNIX netstat Utility
			The Windows netstat Utility
		TCP/IP Configuration Utilities (ifconfig, ipconfig, and winipcfg)
			The ifconfig Utility for UNIX
			The ipconfig for Windows NT, 2000, and XP
			The winipcfg Utility for Windows 95, 98, and Me
		Miscellaneous TCP/IP Troubleshooting Protocols
COLOPHON
                        

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