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TitleWilkinson_Royal Annals of Ancient Egypt-The Palermo Stone and Its Associated Fragments-2000
TagsAncient Egypt Archaeology Egyptology Library And Museum
File Size20.7 MB
Total Pages301
Table of Contents
                            COVER
ROYAL ANNALS OF ANCIENT EGYPT: The Palermo Stone and its associated fragments
COPYRIGHT
CONTENTS
PROLOGUE
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
PART I THE ROYAL ANNALS IN CONTEXT
	THE FRAGMENTS
	PUBLICATION AND STUDY
	INTERPRETING THE ANNALS
PART II TRANSLITERATION, TRANSLATION AND COMMENTARY
	THE PALERMO STONE
	THE MAIN CAIRO FRAGMENT (JdE 44859)
	THE SMALLER FRAGMENTS
APPENDICES
BIBLIOGRAPHY
INDICES
FIGURES
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 2

ROYAL ANNALS
OF

ANICENT EGYPT

The kings of ancient Egypt's first five dynasties were responsible for the creation of

a unique and enduring civilisation, epitomised by its most impressive monuments,

the pyramids. Yet what do we know about the reigns of these kings? Excavations

have revealed much; but Egyptology has always been blessed with another rich

source of information, the written texts and inscriptions composed by the ancient

Egyptians themselves.

For the history of the first five dynasties, one particular series of inscriptions has

always been of prime importance. This is the collection of inscribed stone

fragments known as the royal annals. Now divided between museums in Palermo,

Cairo and London, these documents from ancient Egypt have been the focus of

countless studies in the century or so since they first came to light. For they seem to

record the reigns of Egypt's early kings on a reign-by-reign, year-by-year basis.

The information they contain has been translated, interpreted and re-interpreted

by generations of Egyptologists, in the hope of achieving a better understanding of

the first great period of ancient Egyptian history. And yet amazingly for such crucial

documents - no complete edition of all seven surviving fragments has ever been

published. Royal Annals of Ancient Egypt fills this gap. The text is accompanied by

specially commissioned, detailed line-drawings of all the fragments.

Toby A.H. Wilkinson was at the Department of Archaeology, University of

Durham and is presently at Christ's College, Cambridge. He is the author of two

important works in Egyptology.

Page 150

TRANSLITERATION, TRANSLATION & COMMENTARY

PS v.I.t

[3bd ... J sw 24

... months 24 days

Menkaura's last year

Nothing survives of this compartment other than a fragment of the enumeration of

months and days of the calendar year which had elapsed when the reign of

Menkaura came to an end.

change of reign

PS v.I.2

3bd ... sw 11 vC(t)-nswt-bid sm3 Sm c+T3-M/:zw pbr /:z3 inb /:zb-ssd mst Wp-w3wt 2

sms nswt nJrw sm3 t3wi ... [Vntiw? -IS ssp st qb/:z-Spss-k3.f ... Sm c M/:zw snwt(i) 20

hrwnb

... 1[6J24 ... [6JOO

m/:z 4 ssp 3 db c 21/2

... months 11 days; appearance of the dual king; uniting Upper and Lower Egypt;

circumambulating the wall; diadem-festival; creating (images of) the two

Wepwawets; following (by) the king of the gods who unite the two lands?

... provisioners? choosing the location of the pyramid 'fountain of Shepseskaf';

... the senut( i)-shrine of Upper and Lower Egypt: 20 every day;

... 1624 ... 600 ...

4 cubits, 3 palms, two-and-a-half fingers

149

Page 151

ROY AL ANNALS OF ANCIENT EGYPT

Shepseskaf's first year

The usual ceremonies associated with the accession and coronation of a new king,

attested earlier in the annals, are, in this instance, accompanied by a further event,

the diadem-festival (/:tb-sSd). This festival seems to have been part of the

coronation rites from an early period, since it appears among the religious

ceremonies connected with the coronation of Hatshepsut in texts at Deir el-Bahri,

which are clearly derived from an ancient copy (Naville 1898: pI. LXIII; Breasted

1906b: 99). The word ssd itself is usually translated 'diadem', but may be more

accurately rendered 'headband', 'fillet (of cloth)'. It is first attested on a granite

block from the small step pyramid of Huni at Elephantine, which bears the

inscription ssd-nswt-(f(wi), '(palace named) diadem of King Huni' (Seidlmayer

1996: 119-20, 122, 124). The diadem-festival was the rite in which the new king

was adorned with items of the royal regalia, representing his assumption of the

office of kingship (Barta 1980). Presumably, one such item of regalia was a cloth

headband with which the king was ceremonially invested.

The second column of text records the creation of an image of Wepwawet

(wp-w3wt, literally 'opener of the ways'), the jackal deity who preceded the king

in formal situations and literally 'opened the ways' before the ruler. The

determinative (Wepwawet and the shedshed-device on a standard) is written

twice, probably indicating that two identical images of the god were created. The

precise symbolism behind this duality is not entirely clear, but it probably

reflected the concept of duality running throughout the ideology of kingship, as

expressed in other accession/coronation ceremonies such as the 'appearance of

the dual king' and the 'unification of Upper and Lower Egypt'. There follows a

rather obscure reference to a ritual procession in which the king followed 'the

gods who unite the Two Lands'. These may have been the cult images of the

deities which gathered together at the Residence for the coronation of the new

king and the accompanying ritual reunification of Upper and Lower Egypt.

The text at the beginning of the third column is lost, but the remaining signs

seem to mention the bndw-s, apparently associated with the king's funerary cult.

The archive of papyri from the mortuary temple of Neferirkara at Abusir make

150

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