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TitleWriting Literature Reviews: A Guide for Students of the Social and Behavioral Sciences
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Total Pages201
Table of Contents
Title Page
Copyright Page
Table of
Detailed Contents
Introduction to the Sixth Edition
	Audience for This Book
	Unique Features
	Notes to the Instructor
	About the Sixth Edition
	Special Acknowledgment
Chapter 1 Writing Reviews of Academic Literature: An Overview
	An Introduction to Reviewing Primary Sources
		Why Focus on Empirical Research Reports?
		Another Kind of Primary Source: Theoretical Articles
		Literature Review Articles
		Anecdotal Reports
		Reports on Professional Practices and Standards
	The Writing Process
		Writing for a Specific Purpose
		Planning to Write
		Organizing Your Notes and Your Thoughts
		Drafting, Editing, and Redrafting
	Activities for Chapter 1
Chapter 2 Considerations in Writing Reviews for Specific Purposes
	Writing a Literature Review As a Term Paper for a Class
	Writing a Literature Review Chapter for a Thesis or Dissertation
	Writing a Literature Review for a Research Article
	Activities for Chapter 2
Chapter 3 Selecting a Topic and Identifying Literature for Review
	✓ Step 1: Search an appropriate database
	✓ Step 2: Shorten your reference list if it is too long
	✓ Step 3: Increase the size of your reference list, if necessary
	✓ Step 4: Consider searching for unpublished studies
	✓ Step 5: Write the first draft of your topic statement
	✓ Step 6: Familiarize yourself with online databases—especially Google Scholar
	✓ Step 7: Identify the relevant databases in your field of study
	✓ Step 8: Familiarize yourself with the organization of the database
	✓ Step 9: Begin with a general descriptor, then limit the output
	✓ Step 10: Redefine your topic more narrowly
	✓ Step 11: Start with the most current research, and work backward
	✓ Step 12: Search for theoretical articles on your topic
	✓ Step 13: Look for “review” articles
	✓ Step 14: Identify the landmark or classic studies and theorists
	Activities for Chapter 3
Chapter 4 General Guidelines for Analyzing Literature
	✓ Guideline 1: Scan the articles to get an overview of each one
	✓ Guideline 2: Based on your overview (see Guideline 1), group the articles by category
	✓ Guideline 3: Organize yourself before reading the articles
	✓ Guideline 4: Use a consistent format in your notes
	✓ Guideline 5: Look for explicit definitions of key terms in the literature
	✓ Guideline 6: Look for key statistics to use near the beginning of your literature review
	✓ Guideline 7: Pay special attention to review articles on your topic
	✓ Guideline 8: Prepare note cards with short notable quotations that might be used very sparingly in your review
	✓ Guideline 9: Look for methodological strengths
	✓ Guideline 10: Look for methodological weaknesses
	✓ Guideline 11: Distinguish between assertion and evidence
	✓ Guideline 12: Identify the major trends or patterns in the results of previous studies
	✓ Guideline 13: Identify gaps in the literature
	✓ Guideline 14: Identify relationships among studies
	✓ Guideline 15: Note how closely each article relates to your topic
	✓ Guideline 16: Evaluate your reference list for currency and for coverage
	Activities for Chapter 4
Chapter 5 Analyzing Quantitative Research Literature
	✓ Guideline 1: Note whether the research is quantitative or qualitative
	✓ Guideline 2: Note whether a study is experimental or nonexperimental
	✓ Guideline 3: In an experiment, note whether the participants were assigned at random to treatment conditions
	✓ Guideline 4: Note attempts to examine cause-and-effect issues in nonexperimental studies
	✓ Guideline 5: Consider the test-retest reliability of the measure
	✓ Guideline 6: Consider the internal consistency reliability of the measure
	✓ Guideline 7: Consider the validity of the measure
	✓ Guideline 8: Consider whether a measure is valid for a particular research purpose
	✓ Guideline 9: Note differences in how a variable is measured across studies
	✓ Guideline 10: Note how the participants were sampled
	✓ Guideline 11: Make notes on the demographics of the participants
	✓ Guideline 12: Note how large a difference is—not just whether it is statistically significant
	✓ Guideline 13: Presume that all quantitative studies are flawed
	Concluding Comment
	Activities for Chapter 5
Chapter 6 Analyzing Qualitative Research Literature
	✓ Guideline 1: Note whether the research was conducted by an individual or by a research team
	✓ Guideline 2: When there is a research team, note whether analysis of the data was initially conducted independently
	✓ Guideline 3: Note whether outside experts were consulted
	✓ Guideline 4: Note whether the participants were consulted on the interpretation of the data
	✓ Guideline 5: Note whether the researchers used a purposive sample or a sample of convenience
	✓ Guideline 6: Note whether the demographics of the participants are described
	✓ Guideline 7: Consider whether the method of qualitative analysis is described in sufficient detail
	✓ Guideline 8: Note whether quantities are provided when qualitative researchers discuss quantitative matters
	Concluding Comment
	Activities for Chapter 6
Chapter 7 Building Tables to Summarize Literature
	✓ Guideline 1: Consider building a table of definitions
	✓ Guideline 2: Consider building a table of research methods
	✓ Guideline 3: Consider including a summary of research results in the methods table
	✓ Guideline 4: When there is much literature on a topic, establish criteria for determining which literature to summarize in a table
	✓ Guideline 5: When there is much literature on a topic, consider building two or more tables to summarize it
	✓ Guideline 6: Present tables in a literature review only for complex material
	✓ Guideline 7: Discuss each table included in a literature review
	✓ Guideline 8: Give each table a number and descriptive title
	✓ Guideline 9: Master table-building using your word processor
	✓ Guideline 10: Insert continued when tables split across pages
	Activities for Chapter 7
Chapter 8 Synthesizing Literature Prior to Writing a Review
	✓ Guideline 1: Consider your purpose and voice before beginning to write
	✓ Guideline 2: Consider how to reassemble your notes
	✓ Guideline 3: Create a topic outline that traces your argument
	✓ Guideline 4: Reorganize your notes according to the path of your argument
	✓ Guideline 5: Within each topic heading, note differences among studies
	✓ Guideline 6: Within each topic heading, look for obvious gaps or areas needing more research
	✓ Guideline 7: Plan to briefly describe relevant theories
	✓ Guideline 8: Plan to discuss how individual studies relate to and advance theory
	✓ Guideline 9: Plan to summarize periodically and again near the end of the review
	✓ Guideline 10: Plan to present conclusions and implications
	✓ Guideline 11: Plan to suggest specific directions for future research near the end of the review
	✓ Guideline 12: Flesh out your outline with details from your analysis
	Activities for Chapter 8
Chapter 9 Guidelines for Writing a First Draft
	✓ Guideline 1: Begin by identifying the broad problem area, but avoid global statements
	✓ Guideline 2: Early in the review, indicate why the topic being reviewed is important
	✓ Guideline 3: Distinguish between research findings and other sources of information
	✓ Guideline 4: Indicate why certain studies are important
	✓ Guideline 5: If you are commenting on the timeliness of a topic, be specific in describing the timeframe
	✓ Guideline 6: If citing a classic or landmark study, identify it as such
	✓ Guideline 7: If a landmark study was replicated, mention that and indicate the results of the replication
	✓ Guideline 8: Discuss other literature reviews on your topic
	✓ Guideline 9: Refer the reader to other reviews on issues that you will not be discussing in detail
	✓ Guideline 10: Justify comments such as “no studies were found.”
	✓ Guideline 11: Avoid long lists of nonspecific references
	✓ Guideline 12: If the results of previous studies are inconsistent or widely varying, cite them separately
	✓ Guideline 13: Speculate on the reasons for inconsistent findings in previous research
	✓ Guideline 14: Cite all relevant references in the review section of a thesis, dissertation, or journal article
	✓ Guideline 15: Emphasize the need for your study in the literature review section or chapter
	Activities for Chapter 9
Chapter 10 Guidelines for Developing a Coherent Essay
	✓ Guideline 1: If your review is long, provide an overview near the beginning of the review
	✓ Guideline 2: Near the beginning of a review, state explicitly what will and will not be covered
	✓ Guideline 3: Specify your point of view early in the review
	✓ Guideline 4: Aim for a clear and cohesive essay. Avoid annotations
	✓ Guideline 5: Use subheadings, especially in long reviews
	✓ Guideline 6: Use transitions to help trace your argument
	✓ Guideline 7: If your topic reaches across disciplines, consider reviewing studies from each discipline separately
	✓ Guideline 8: Write a conclusion for the end of the review
	✓ Guideline 9: Check the flow of your argument for coherence
	Activities for Chapter 10
Chapter 11 Guidelines on Style, Mechanics, and Language Usage
	✓ Guideline 1: Compare your draft with your topic outline
	✓ Guideline 2: Check the structure of your review for parallelism
	✓ Guideline 3: Avoid overusing direct quotations, especially long ones
	✓ Guideline 4: Check your style manual for correct use of citations
	✓ Guideline 5: Avoid using synonyms for recurring words
	✓ Guideline 6: Spell out all acronyms when you first use them, and avoid using too many
	✓ Guideline 7: Avoid the use of contractions. They are inappropriate in formal academic writing
	✓ Guideline 8: When used, coined terms should be set off by quotations
	✓ Guideline 9: Avoid slang expressions, colloquialisms, and idioms
	✓ Guideline 10: Use Latin abbreviations in parenthetic material. Elsewhere, use English translations
	✓ Guideline 11: Check your draft for common writing conventions
	✓ Guideline 12: Write a concise and descriptive title for the review
	✓ Guideline 13: Strive for a user-friendly draft
	✓ Guideline 14: Use great care to avoid plagiarism
	✓ Guideline 15: Get help if you need it
	Activities for Chapter 11
Chapter 12 Incorporating Feedback and Refining the First Draft
	✓ Guideline 1: The reader is always right
	✓ Guideline 2: Expect your instructor to comment on the content
	✓ Guideline 3: Concentrate first on comments about your ideas
	✓ Guideline 4: Reconcile contradictory feedback by seeking clarification
	✓ Guideline 5: Reconcile comments about style with your style manual
	✓ Guideline 6: Allow sufficient time for the feedback and redrafting process
	Activities for Chapter 12
Chapter 13 Preparing a Reference List
	✓ Guideline 1: Place the reference list at the end of the review under the main heading “References.”
	✓ Guideline 2: A reference list should refer only to sources cited in the literature review
	✓ Guideline 3: List references alphabetically by author’s surname
	✓ Guideline 4: Use hanging indents for the second and subsequent lines of references
	✓ Guideline 5: Learn how to create hanging indents using a word processor
	✓ Guideline 6: Italicize the titles of journals and their volume numbers
	✓ Guideline 7: Pay particular attention to capitalization
	✓ Guideline 8: Pay particular attention to punctuation
	✓ Guideline 9: Do not add extraneous material such as abbreviations for page numbers
	✓ Guideline 10: Provide the date and URL in references for material published on the Internet
	✓ Guideline 11: Format references to books in accordance with a style manual
	✓ Guideline 12: Double-check the reference list against the citations in the body of the review
	Concluding Comment
	Activities for Chapter 13
Chapter 14 Comprehensive Self-Editing Checklist for Refining the Final Draft
	Adherence to the Writing Process for Editing and Redrafting
	Importance or Significance of the Topic
	Organization and Other Global Considerations
	Effectiveness of the Introduction
	Currency and Relevance of the Literature Cited
	Thoroughness and Accuracy of the Literature Reviewed
	Coherence and Flow of the Path of the Argument
	Effectiveness of the Conclusion
	Accuracy of Citations and the Reference List
	Mechanics and Overall Accuracy of the Manuscript
	Appropriateness of Style and Language Usage
	Grammatical Accuracy
	Additional Editing Steps for Non-Native English Speakers and Students With Serious Writing Difficulties
	Additional Guidelines Suggested by Your Instructor
Model Literature Reviews for Discussion and Evaluation
	Review A Cyberbullying Among College Students
	Review B Waterpipe Smoking Among College Students in the United States
	Review C The Effect of Student Discussion Frequency on Mathematics Achievement
	Review D Behaviors in Couples With a History of Infidelity
	Review E The Prevalence of Stalking Among College Students
	Review F School Social Workers’ Experiences With Youth Suicidal Behavior
	Review G Demographic and Academic Trends in Drinking Patterns and Alcohol-Related Problems
	Review H Overnight Stays and Children’s Relationships With Resident and Nonresident Parents After Divorce
	Review I Language Brokering: An Integrative Review of the Literature
Appendix A Sample ERIC Search

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